美国文学史及选读考试整理

温柔似野鬼°
901次浏览
2020年07月31日 00:24
最佳经验
本文由作者推荐

低碳生活从我做起手抄报-春节福字



Washington Irving
Bracebridge Hall
布雷斯布里奇田庄
(1822)
The Legend of Sleepy Hollow
Tales of a Traveller
旅客谈
(1824)
Christopher Columbus (1828)
c. writing characteristics
(1) humorous: the function of his writing is to amuse,
to entertain instead of teaching or instruction
(2) vivid and true character portrayal
(3) finished (refined) and musical language, thus
regarded as “the Amn. Goldsmith”
d. analysis on The Legend of Sleepy Hollow(选自the
sketch book
见闻札记
)
1. the story:setting,character, plot
2. theme:conflicts and praise
conflict betw. Ichabod and Brom
conflict betw. the village and the outside world
James Fenimore Cooper
The Spy (1821): a historical novel
The Pilot (1824): a sea novel
Leatherstocking Tales
皮裹腿故事集
(1823-1841):
frontier novels
The Last Mohicans (1826) (Colonial War betw.
Britain and France)
e. writing features:
strong points: we can see a variety of incidents and
tensions, complicated plot and structure and a
beautiful description of nature.
Weak points: characterization is weak. There is
unsatisfactory description of characters (esp. female).
He is not free from syntactical awkwardness,
heavy-handed attempt at humor. “Where Irving
excels Cooper is weak.” Dialect is not authentic.
Edgar Allan Poe
The Fall of the House Usher
Feature:
i. brevity (15 pages)
ii. Single effect
iii. originality in theme
To Helen
It was inspired by the beauty of the mother of a
schoolmate of Poe in Richmond, Virginia.
The poem is famous for a number of things:
1. its rhyme scheme: ababb
2. its varied line lengths
3. its metaphor of a travel on the sea
4. its oft-quoted lines:

was Rome.
theme: praise the ideal love and beauty and ancient
Greek and Roman civilizations
The Raven
乌鸦

theme: the lament over the death of a beautiful
woman
tone: melancholy
Transcendentalism (essayists, poets, novelists)
Their journal is “The Dial”.
Definition: Transcendentalism is idealism. (Emerson)
b. features
(1) stress on Oversoul, that is spirit.
(2) stress the importance of individual.
(3) fresh conception of nature.
c. significance
(1) inspired a whole generation of writers such as
Whitman, Melville and Dickinson.
(2) dresses man’s subjective initiative as opposed to
materialism.
(3) liberated people from Calvin’s original sin
d. limitation
(1) shallow: cut off from real life or reality; initiated
by the rich, they were limited in a certain circle. So,
in some degree, they have been cut off from social
life and can’t understand the sufferings of the
common people.
(2) inward contradiction: gain knowledge by
intuition, shows its idealistic aspect.
R.W. Emerson (Ralph Waldo)
Nature (1836): the Bible of New
England transcendentalism
The American Scholar (1837):

The Divinity School Address神学院致
辞(1838)
Essays (18411847)
Representative Men (1850)
English Traits (1856)



Poems (1847)
d. significance
(1) He embodied a new nation’s desire
and struggle to assert its own identity in
its formative period.
(2) his stress on individualism
Limitation:self-centered, individual
His ideas influence a lot of writers such
as Dikinson, Hawthorne and Whitman.
Henry David Thoreau
A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers
康考德和梅里马克河上的一周
(1849)
Walden, or Life in the Woods (1854)
Civil Disobedience 不服从论(1849, an address)
c. Walden
main ideas:
(1)on self-cultivation and human perfectibility,
elevated from Puritan original sin, believe in inner
virtue and inwardly grace
(2) criticism on civilization and capitalism
(3) only truth and knowledge can’t be taken away,
trust in future and in man
Style: pithy (colloquial sayings), vivid description,
symbols and images
Nathaniel Hawthorne
Twice-Told Tales (1837): a collection of short stories
Mosses from an Old Manse
古屋青苔
(1846): another
collection of short stories
The House of the Seven Gables
七个尖角的阁楼
(1851): on the effect of a curse
The Scarlet Letter (1850): masterpiece
It’s not a love story, trying to show the moral,
emotional and psychological effects of sin on his
characters.
“A”: Adultery-Able-Angel
“A” on chest: sinner, confessed, died, shows an
honest man
Moral: man should be true and honest and ready to
show one’s worst to the world(批评与自我批评)
Herman Melville
Typee (《泰比》1846)
Omoo (《奥穆》1847)
Mardi (《马尔迪》1847)
这三部作品描写塔希提群岛和马吉萨斯群岛以及
他在岛上的奇遇。
Redburn (《莱德勃恩》1849):描写了他的第一次
航海经验以及在利物浦港贫民窟的见闻。
White Jacket (《白外套》1850):根据他在美国海
军军舰上服役时期的生活体验写成。
Pierre (《皮埃尔》1852)
Israel Potter (《伊斯莱尔·波特》1855): historical
novel
Piazza Tales (《广场故事》1856): a collection of short
story
Moby Dick (《白鲸》1851): masterpiece
(1) a whaling book: an encyclopedia of
whalingdescription of a whaler’s life
(2) a tragedy

about man fighting against universe
(hostile)Man in this universe lives a meaningless
and futile life, meaningless because futile.
Man can observe and even manipulate in a prudent
way, but he cannot influence and overcome nature at
its source.
(3) alienation异化:
between man and man
between man and society (ship)
between man and nature
Ahab is the best representative.
To him the world exists for his sake. His selfhood
must be asserted at the expense of all else: lives may
be sacrificed, and nature may have to be vanquished
in order that he may do what he wills.
Richard Chase says: the idea Melville conveys in it is

(5) theme: quest
(6) symbolism
the voyage: a metaphor for and discovery,
the search for the ultimate truth of experience
the Pequod皮阔德: the ship of the American soul
the endeavor of the crews:
of our white mental consciousness
Moby Dick: (many interpretations) the symbol of
nature
W. C. Bryant
the analysis on To a Waterfowl
致水鸟

It is the perfect brief poem in the language
(Matthew Arnold)



It is a poem of nature in quatrains rhyming in abab.
theme: from a bird and its flight to an ordinary
person and his course of life, this poem conveys that
everything in nature is under the beneficence and
protection of the Power.
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
Theme: idealized love, children, family and friendship
A Psalm of Life
The poem is divided into 9 stanzas, each composed
of two iambic tetrameter lines and two trochaic
trimeter lines rhyming abab.
The first two stanzas refute the pessimism that life is
but a dream, affirming the contrary that life is real.
The following stanzas urge the reader to act in the
present and to leave
in order to inspire the followers.
The last stanza ends with a resounding note while
admonishing people to learn to wait as well as to
labor.
Realism(the 19th-century literary movement that reacted
to romanticism by insisting on a faithful, objective
presentation of the details of everyday life.)
features:
 ive description (concern for the
commonplacethe low)
 ii. criticism of society and reality, exposing and
criticizing the society; the writers’ dissatisfaction; no
longer eulogize human glority
 iii. verisimilitude逼真性(true to details)
 iv. influenced by bourgeois’ 中产阶级democratic
ideas (not overthrow but reform, changes)
 v. reformative: to reform the society, not to change
completely
 features: Naturalism(A post-Darwinian movement
of the late 19th century that tried to apply the
of scientific determinism to fiction.)is a
theory which applied scientific concepts and
methods to such problems as plot development and
characterisation.
 Comparison between Realism and Naturalism:
 Realism.
 i. objective
 ii. creation of types
 iii. influenced by British Rom. works with hope
 Naturalism
 i. scientific accuracy
 ii. collect material from their lives
 t this, hopelessgloomy picture of the
society
Walt Whitman
Leaves of Grass《草叶集》,
(1) themes
 i. unity of all man and of man within universe
 ii. equality of all man
 iii. cycle of life and death
 iv. enthusiastic idea toward Westward Expansion
 v. brotherhood
d. Song of Myself
自我之歌

 (1) influence of Transcendentalism: praise of
individualism
 (2) cycle of life and death
 (3) ideal of democracy: equality between different
races and brotherhood
Emily Dickinson
A Bird came down the walk
I died for Beauty---but was Scarce
I Heard a Fly buzz---when I died---
Because I could not stop for Death-
H.B. Stowe
Uncle Tom's Cabin (1851): masterpiece
significance:
 ified and strengthened abolitionist sentiment;
 2. gave a better balanced, more specific picture of
plantation life;
 3. praised the merits of slaves and showed great
sympathy for them
Henry James
 The American (1877): begins with international
theme
 Daisy Miller (1878): brings the author first
international fame
 The Wings of the Dove (1902)
 The Ambassadors (1903)
 The Golden Bowl (1904)
 The Portrait of A Lady
贵妇画像
:masterpiece
 It tells about the fate of one of those splendid
Jamesian American girls, Isabel Archer, arriving in
Europe, full of hope, and with a will to live a free
and noble life, only to fail prey to the sinister designs
of two vulgar and unscrupulous expatriates, Madam
Merle and Gilbert Osmond

International theme国际主题:
 the meeting of America and Europe; American
innocence in contact and contrast with European
decadence and the moral and psychological
complications arising therefrom; for the American it



was a process of progression from inexperience to
experience, from innocence to knowledge and
maturity. Those American heroes or heroins who
confronting European sophistication, either
triumphed over it or were overwhelmed.
Mark Twain
 The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras Count

拉维拉斯县有名的跳蛙
(1865):a short story
 The Innocents Abroad
国外的无辜者
(1869): letters
on his travelling in Europe and Near East
 Roughing It
苦行记
(1872): on his experience in the
western America
 The Gilded Age (1873): his first novel, collaborated
with Charles Dudley Warner
 The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1876)
 The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
哈克贝利·费恩
历险记
(1884): masterpiece
 Life on the Mississippi (1883)
 A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court
误闯亚
瑟王宫
(1889)
 The Man That Corrupted Hadleyburg
败坏了哈德莱
堡的人
(1900)
 The Mysterious Stranger (1916)
e. The Adventures of Tom Sawyer
 1. It is boy's bookwhich sets 20 years before
Civil War.
 2. themes:
 1)picaresque以流浪汉和无赖为题材的(adventure
story)
 2) moral growth of Tom
 3. techniques: verisimilitude, humor, colloquial style
Deadpan(铁面幽默): oral humorthe teller has a strict
face but the listeners are laughing.
Language: dialects as forms of art
Jack London
 The People of the Abyss
深渊居民
(1903): about
London's slum
 The Iron Heel 铁蹄(1908): the first proletarian
criterion novel which envisages the development of
fascism
 The Call of the Wild 野性的呼唤(1903): the most
widely read book
 The Sea Wolf
海狼
(1904)
 These two novels reflect the ideas of the law of
survival and the will to power
 Martin Eden
马丁伊登
(1909): a reflection of the
contradiction between these competeing beliefs
c. Martin Eden--theme:the failure of American Dream.
After he realized his dream of getting into the upper class,
he also realized the emptiness of it and committed
suicide.

critics. Written as an indictment of individualism, it
was accepted as an indictment of socialism; written
to show that man cannot live for himself alone, it
was accepted as a demonstration that success made
for death. Had Martin Eden been a socialist he would
not have died.
 Consciously London meant the novel to show that
only a belief in the people, only the devotion of one's
life to a cause greater than onself, could give life any
real meaning.
T. Dreisser西奥多·德莱塞
 Sister Carrie 嘉莉妹妹(1900): the first novel,
masterwork
 Jannie Gerhardt (1911)
 The Fanancier (1912)
 The Titan (1914)
 The Stoic (1947)
 The Genius (1915)
 An American Tragedy
美国悲剧
(1925)
 Dreiser Looks at Russia (1928)
c. Sister Carrie
 theme:the emptiness of Ameircan Dream
 i. jungle law
 Famous actress bank manager(the unfit is bound to
die) <——
 Country girl (able to follow her instinct) commit
suicide
 ii. chance and luck
 iii. criticism of American values: money and sex
—the standards to see if a person is successful
 iv. concern for the poor
Jazz Age: the Jazz Age lasted from 1919-1929, the
decade enjoyed economic prosperity. The war and economic
boom encouraged a breaking with the tradition (Puritanism).
People upheld the value of money-making and
pleasure-seeking.
Ezra Pound埃兹拉·庞德
Imagism意象派
 Pound became the most important figure. Imagist
poetry reached the peak of literature for three things
appeared:
 i. a manifesto
 ii. three principles
 iii. a lot of writings



 Pound said, an image is which presents an
intellectual and emotional complex in an instant of
time.
In a Station of the Metro
在地铁车站

 1. This is the much-quoted masterpiece of Pound and
a representative of the Imagist poetry.
 2. In form, the poem is similar to the Japanese haiku,
a two-line couplet with rhymes. Pound's poem
reminds the Chinese of two lines by a Tang poet, Bai
Juyi. When describing the sad yet beautiful face of
Yang Huifei, a Tang emperess, the poet wrote,
 The beautiful face, lonesome with tears;
 A pear branch, radiant with rain.
 3. The poem is a representative of Imagist poems in
that the image of petals on a wet, black bough best
represents the picture of those lovely faces in the
crowd and that the image is dominant in the
poem---the image itself is the poem.
T.S. Eliot
poetry:
 Prufrock and Other Observations (1917)
 Poems (1920)
 The Waste Land (1922)
 The Hollow Men (1925)
 Ash Wednesday (1930)
 Four Quartets (1943)
plays:
 Sweeney Agonistes (1932)
 Murder in the Cathedral (1935)
 The Cocktail Party (1950)
 The Confidential Clerk (1954)
critical essays:
 The Sacred Wood (1920)
 For Lancelot Andrews (1928)
 The Use of Poetry and the Use of Criticism (1933)
 After Strange Gods (1934)
 On Poetry and Poets (1957)
c. The Waste Land
荒原

 5 parts: The Burial of Dead, The Game of Chess, The
Fire Sermon, Death by Water, What the Thunder
Said
 chief characteristics
 1. quotations and allusions暗示
 2. objective correlative
 3. juxtaposition并列: mingle brand image with
common image
 4. use of antiquity古风
The Love Song
 modern
man; instead, he represents many other modern
westerners who are between passion and
timidity, between desire and impotence
4. theme
 This poem reflects the decadent modern civilization
and the nightmarish inferno in which modern
Westerners are living in.
5. techiniques
 1) irony
 2) striking images
 3) the form of dramatic monologue
 The poem is written in irregular lines, with but a few
rhymes.
Robert Frost
b. Characteristics
 1. not in the main stream of modern poetry, but with
conventional form and plain language. That’s why
he’s the most popular poet in the 20th century.
 2. a kind of a regionalist----New England, but not
local colorism. He used New England as a metaphor
for the whole world and universe.
 3. a plain poet using symbols from everyday country
life. Simple symbols but express deep meanings.
The Road Not Taken
 1. The poem was written in very regular lines with
iambic pentametre and rhyme scheme of abaab.
 2. The symbolic meaning of the two divergent roads
is rather clear. They represent any important
decisions in one's life.
 3. details:
Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening
 1. It is a lyric poem with iambic tetrametre and
interlocking enclosed rhyme.
 2. It represents a moment of relaxation from the
onerous journey of life, an almost aesthetic
enjoyment and appreciation of natural beauty which
is wholesome and retorative against the chaotic
existence of modern man.
The Lost Generation
 1. term: It is a term in frequent use after WWI in
reference to the young men who survived physically
but were afterwards spiritually and morally adrift. So
the lost generation refers to disillusioned writers who
wrote after WWI. Many of them went to the battle.
After the war, they rebelled against former ideals and
values and can’t find new ones to replace.
 2. It first coined by Gertrude Stein. In Paris, she



opens the door to American expatriates. She once
said to Hemingway, “You’re all a lost generation.”
 3. It was used as preface to The Sun Also Rises. Then
it became popular. Fitzgerald once said they are “a
generation grown up to find all gods died, all wars
fought, all faith in men shaken”.
Ernest Hemingway
 way themeherosituation. Theme: “grace
under pressure”
sm: negative attitude towards the world.
There is only one thing man is certain---death
 3. devotion to truth. He believes the writer's job is to
tell truth.
c. style
 g principle. The meaning here is that the
writer should say only one eighth, in such a way that
the remaining seven eighths be discerned and
provided by the reader.
 ge: short, common, fundamental words,
simple sentence, effect of the language:
clearness, cleanness and great care.
 ue: plays a very important part in his
writings. Hemingway’s dialogue can show setting,
development of plot, characters, even theme.
 tic way: he uses showing instead of telling.
He likes to describes actions (kiss, withdraw hand)
vividly instead of mental description.
 ism
 of stream of consciousness
d. A Farewell to Arms
 1. If we say The Sun Also Rises tells why they lost,
this novel describes how they lost. Thus it can be
read as a footnote to the former.
 2. the double meanings of the title
 3. the hero Henry: Hemingway's hero
 4. theme: war and love. It shows a world of complete
unreason and reflects the mood of the post-war
generation.
F. Scott Fitzgerald
b. The Great Gatsby
 Theme:
 1. about reality and atmosphere of 1920s
 2. failure of American Dream
c. attitude towards the rich: paradoxical
 He is charmed by the rich.
 He is critical of the rich who are corrupted
themselves and meanwhile corrupting others.
d. attitude towards the Jazz Age: insider and outsider
John Steinbeck
b. The Grapes of Wrath
愤怒的葡萄

1. significance
 1) it’s a great social document in 1930s.
 2) A protest novel. In the novel, the author attacks
the decadence, wickedness and cruelty of banks and
land owners and the current social system as a
whole.
 3) themes: unity and faith
unity: Steinbeck believes that strength lies in the
unity of people and he also stresses on individualism.
faith: The Great Depression was the most miserable
period in the 20th century. Even though people suffered a
lot, they still held on their hope and will live on.
2. characters:
 Ma Joad (the mother): embodiment of the theme. She
asked Rose to save the stranger.
 1) she realized unity would bring people strength.
 2) the faith in future
 Tom: shows the change from I (individualism) to we
(unity)
 Jim Casy: a preacher he developed himself from a
labor to an organizer and set up the guiding principle
and after his death, Tom took over his role. The
initial of his name: J.C.---Jesus Christ
William Faulkner
Sound and Fury: divided into 4 parts
 1. themes:
 a) downfall of the South. The south was in
deterioration. It’s going from bad to worse. The
present and the past form a contrast from Benjy’s
eyes. He’s an idiot so his reactions were distinctive
feeling. He felt strongly the loss of love. The
downfall of Mr. Campson was not only a personal
one but also a universal one---the society was in
disorder.
 b) conflict between the oldyoung generations
A Rose For Emily



Washington Irving
Bracebridge Hall
布雷斯布里奇田庄
(1822)
The Legend of Sleepy Hollow
Tales of a Traveller
旅客谈
(1824)
Christopher Columbus (1828)
c. writing characteristics
(1) humorous: the function of his writing is to amuse,
to entertain instead of teaching or instruction
(2) vivid and true character portrayal
(3) finished (refined) and musical language, thus
regarded as “the Amn. Goldsmith”
d. analysis on The Legend of Sleepy Hollow(选自the
sketch book
见闻札记
)
1. the story:setting,character, plot
2. theme:conflicts and praise
conflict betw. Ichabod and Brom
conflict betw. the village and the outside world
James Fenimore Cooper
The Spy (1821): a historical novel
The Pilot (1824): a sea novel
Leatherstocking Tales
皮裹腿故事集
(1823-1841):
frontier novels
The Last Mohicans (1826) (Colonial War betw.
Britain and France)
e. writing features:
strong points: we can see a variety of incidents and
tensions, complicated plot and structure and a
beautiful description of nature.
Weak points: characterization is weak. There is
unsatisfactory description of characters (esp. female).
He is not free from syntactical awkwardness,
heavy-handed attempt at humor. “Where Irving
excels Cooper is weak.” Dialect is not authentic.
Edgar Allan Poe
The Fall of the House Usher
Feature:
i. brevity (15 pages)
ii. Single effect
iii. originality in theme
To Helen
It was inspired by the beauty of the mother of a
schoolmate of Poe in Richmond, Virginia.
The poem is famous for a number of things:
1. its rhyme scheme: ababb
2. its varied line lengths
3. its metaphor of a travel on the sea
4. its oft-quoted lines:

was Rome.
theme: praise the ideal love and beauty and ancient
Greek and Roman civilizations
The Raven
乌鸦

theme: the lament over the death of a beautiful
woman
tone: melancholy
Transcendentalism (essayists, poets, novelists)
Their journal is “The Dial”.
Definition: Transcendentalism is idealism. (Emerson)
b. features
(1) stress on Oversoul, that is spirit.
(2) stress the importance of individual.
(3) fresh conception of nature.
c. significance
(1) inspired a whole generation of writers such as
Whitman, Melville and Dickinson.
(2) dresses man’s subjective initiative as opposed to
materialism.
(3) liberated people from Calvin’s original sin
d. limitation
(1) shallow: cut off from real life or reality; initiated
by the rich, they were limited in a certain circle. So,
in some degree, they have been cut off from social
life and can’t understand the sufferings of the
common people.
(2) inward contradiction: gain knowledge by
intuition, shows its idealistic aspect.
R.W. Emerson (Ralph Waldo)
Nature (1836): the Bible of New
England transcendentalism
The American Scholar (1837):

The Divinity School Address神学院致
辞(1838)
Essays (18411847)
Representative Men (1850)
English Traits (1856)



Poems (1847)
d. significance
(1) He embodied a new nation’s desire
and struggle to assert its own identity in
its formative period.
(2) his stress on individualism
Limitation:self-centered, individual
His ideas influence a lot of writers such
as Dikinson, Hawthorne and Whitman.
Henry David Thoreau
A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers
康考德和梅里马克河上的一周
(1849)
Walden, or Life in the Woods (1854)
Civil Disobedience 不服从论(1849, an address)
c. Walden
main ideas:
(1)on self-cultivation and human perfectibility,
elevated from Puritan original sin, believe in inner
virtue and inwardly grace
(2) criticism on civilization and capitalism
(3) only truth and knowledge can’t be taken away,
trust in future and in man
Style: pithy (colloquial sayings), vivid description,
symbols and images
Nathaniel Hawthorne
Twice-Told Tales (1837): a collection of short stories
Mosses from an Old Manse
古屋青苔
(1846): another
collection of short stories
The House of the Seven Gables
七个尖角的阁楼
(1851): on the effect of a curse
The Scarlet Letter (1850): masterpiece
It’s not a love story, trying to show the moral,
emotional and psychological effects of sin on his
characters.
“A”: Adultery-Able-Angel
“A” on chest: sinner, confessed, died, shows an
honest man
Moral: man should be true and honest and ready to
show one’s worst to the world(批评与自我批评)
Herman Melville
Typee (《泰比》1846)
Omoo (《奥穆》1847)
Mardi (《马尔迪》1847)
这三部作品描写塔希提群岛和马吉萨斯群岛以及
他在岛上的奇遇。
Redburn (《莱德勃恩》1849):描写了他的第一次
航海经验以及在利物浦港贫民窟的见闻。
White Jacket (《白外套》1850):根据他在美国海
军军舰上服役时期的生活体验写成。
Pierre (《皮埃尔》1852)
Israel Potter (《伊斯莱尔·波特》1855): historical
novel
Piazza Tales (《广场故事》1856): a collection of short
story
Moby Dick (《白鲸》1851): masterpiece
(1) a whaling book: an encyclopedia of
whalingdescription of a whaler’s life
(2) a tragedy

about man fighting against universe
(hostile)Man in this universe lives a meaningless
and futile life, meaningless because futile.
Man can observe and even manipulate in a prudent
way, but he cannot influence and overcome nature at
its source.
(3) alienation异化:
between man and man
between man and society (ship)
between man and nature
Ahab is the best representative.
To him the world exists for his sake. His selfhood
must be asserted at the expense of all else: lives may
be sacrificed, and nature may have to be vanquished
in order that he may do what he wills.
Richard Chase says: the idea Melville conveys in it is

(5) theme: quest
(6) symbolism
the voyage: a metaphor for and discovery,
the search for the ultimate truth of experience
the Pequod皮阔德: the ship of the American soul
the endeavor of the crews:
of our white mental consciousness
Moby Dick: (many interpretations) the symbol of
nature
W. C. Bryant
the analysis on To a Waterfowl
致水鸟

It is the perfect brief poem in the language
(Matthew Arnold)



It is a poem of nature in quatrains rhyming in abab.
theme: from a bird and its flight to an ordinary
person and his course of life, this poem conveys that
everything in nature is under the beneficence and
protection of the Power.
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
Theme: idealized love, children, family and friendship
A Psalm of Life
The poem is divided into 9 stanzas, each composed
of two iambic tetrameter lines and two trochaic
trimeter lines rhyming abab.
The first two stanzas refute the pessimism that life is
but a dream, affirming the contrary that life is real.
The following stanzas urge the reader to act in the
present and to leave
in order to inspire the followers.
The last stanza ends with a resounding note while
admonishing people to learn to wait as well as to
labor.
Realism(the 19th-century literary movement that reacted
to romanticism by insisting on a faithful, objective
presentation of the details of everyday life.)
features:
 ive description (concern for the
commonplacethe low)
 ii. criticism of society and reality, exposing and
criticizing the society; the writers’ dissatisfaction; no
longer eulogize human glority
 iii. verisimilitude逼真性(true to details)
 iv. influenced by bourgeois’ 中产阶级democratic
ideas (not overthrow but reform, changes)
 v. reformative: to reform the society, not to change
completely
 features: Naturalism(A post-Darwinian movement
of the late 19th century that tried to apply the
of scientific determinism to fiction.)is a
theory which applied scientific concepts and
methods to such problems as plot development and
characterisation.
 Comparison between Realism and Naturalism:
 Realism.
 i. objective
 ii. creation of types
 iii. influenced by British Rom. works with hope
 Naturalism
 i. scientific accuracy
 ii. collect material from their lives
 t this, hopelessgloomy picture of the
society
Walt Whitman
Leaves of Grass《草叶集》,
(1) themes
 i. unity of all man and of man within universe
 ii. equality of all man
 iii. cycle of life and death
 iv. enthusiastic idea toward Westward Expansion
 v. brotherhood
d. Song of Myself
自我之歌

 (1) influence of Transcendentalism: praise of
individualism
 (2) cycle of life and death
 (3) ideal of democracy: equality between different
races and brotherhood
Emily Dickinson
A Bird came down the walk
I died for Beauty---but was Scarce
I Heard a Fly buzz---when I died---
Because I could not stop for Death-
H.B. Stowe
Uncle Tom's Cabin (1851): masterpiece
significance:
 ified and strengthened abolitionist sentiment;
 2. gave a better balanced, more specific picture of
plantation life;
 3. praised the merits of slaves and showed great
sympathy for them
Henry James
 The American (1877): begins with international
theme
 Daisy Miller (1878): brings the author first
international fame
 The Wings of the Dove (1902)
 The Ambassadors (1903)
 The Golden Bowl (1904)
 The Portrait of A Lady
贵妇画像
:masterpiece
 It tells about the fate of one of those splendid
Jamesian American girls, Isabel Archer, arriving in
Europe, full of hope, and with a will to live a free
and noble life, only to fail prey to the sinister designs
of two vulgar and unscrupulous expatriates, Madam
Merle and Gilbert Osmond

International theme国际主题:
 the meeting of America and Europe; American
innocence in contact and contrast with European
decadence and the moral and psychological
complications arising therefrom; for the American it



was a process of progression from inexperience to
experience, from innocence to knowledge and
maturity. Those American heroes or heroins who
confronting European sophistication, either
triumphed over it or were overwhelmed.
Mark Twain
 The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras Count

拉维拉斯县有名的跳蛙
(1865):a short story
 The Innocents Abroad
国外的无辜者
(1869): letters
on his travelling in Europe and Near East
 Roughing It
苦行记
(1872): on his experience in the
western America
 The Gilded Age (1873): his first novel, collaborated
with Charles Dudley Warner
 The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1876)
 The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
哈克贝利·费恩
历险记
(1884): masterpiece
 Life on the Mississippi (1883)
 A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court
误闯亚
瑟王宫
(1889)
 The Man That Corrupted Hadleyburg
败坏了哈德莱
堡的人
(1900)
 The Mysterious Stranger (1916)
e. The Adventures of Tom Sawyer
 1. It is boy's bookwhich sets 20 years before
Civil War.
 2. themes:
 1)picaresque以流浪汉和无赖为题材的(adventure
story)
 2) moral growth of Tom
 3. techniques: verisimilitude, humor, colloquial style
Deadpan(铁面幽默): oral humorthe teller has a strict
face but the listeners are laughing.
Language: dialects as forms of art
Jack London
 The People of the Abyss
深渊居民
(1903): about
London's slum
 The Iron Heel 铁蹄(1908): the first proletarian
criterion novel which envisages the development of
fascism
 The Call of the Wild 野性的呼唤(1903): the most
widely read book
 The Sea Wolf
海狼
(1904)
 These two novels reflect the ideas of the law of
survival and the will to power
 Martin Eden
马丁伊登
(1909): a reflection of the
contradiction between these competeing beliefs
c. Martin Eden--theme:the failure of American Dream.
After he realized his dream of getting into the upper class,
he also realized the emptiness of it and committed
suicide.

critics. Written as an indictment of individualism, it
was accepted as an indictment of socialism; written
to show that man cannot live for himself alone, it
was accepted as a demonstration that success made
for death. Had Martin Eden been a socialist he would
not have died.
 Consciously London meant the novel to show that
only a belief in the people, only the devotion of one's
life to a cause greater than onself, could give life any
real meaning.
T. Dreisser西奥多·德莱塞
 Sister Carrie 嘉莉妹妹(1900): the first novel,
masterwork
 Jannie Gerhardt (1911)
 The Fanancier (1912)
 The Titan (1914)
 The Stoic (1947)
 The Genius (1915)
 An American Tragedy
美国悲剧
(1925)
 Dreiser Looks at Russia (1928)
c. Sister Carrie
 theme:the emptiness of Ameircan Dream
 i. jungle law
 Famous actress bank manager(the unfit is bound to
die) <——
 Country girl (able to follow her instinct) commit
suicide
 ii. chance and luck
 iii. criticism of American values: money and sex
—the standards to see if a person is successful
 iv. concern for the poor
Jazz Age: the Jazz Age lasted from 1919-1929, the
decade enjoyed economic prosperity. The war and economic
boom encouraged a breaking with the tradition (Puritanism).
People upheld the value of money-making and
pleasure-seeking.
Ezra Pound埃兹拉·庞德
Imagism意象派
 Pound became the most important figure. Imagist
poetry reached the peak of literature for three things
appeared:
 i. a manifesto
 ii. three principles
 iii. a lot of writings



 Pound said, an image is which presents an
intellectual and emotional complex in an instant of
time.
In a Station of the Metro
在地铁车站

 1. This is the much-quoted masterpiece of Pound and
a representative of the Imagist poetry.
 2. In form, the poem is similar to the Japanese haiku,
a two-line couplet with rhymes. Pound's poem
reminds the Chinese of two lines by a Tang poet, Bai
Juyi. When describing the sad yet beautiful face of
Yang Huifei, a Tang emperess, the poet wrote,
 The beautiful face, lonesome with tears;
 A pear branch, radiant with rain.
 3. The poem is a representative of Imagist poems in
that the image of petals on a wet, black bough best
represents the picture of those lovely faces in the
crowd and that the image is dominant in the
poem---the image itself is the poem.
T.S. Eliot
poetry:
 Prufrock and Other Observations (1917)
 Poems (1920)
 The Waste Land (1922)
 The Hollow Men (1925)
 Ash Wednesday (1930)
 Four Quartets (1943)
plays:
 Sweeney Agonistes (1932)
 Murder in the Cathedral (1935)
 The Cocktail Party (1950)
 The Confidential Clerk (1954)
critical essays:
 The Sacred Wood (1920)
 For Lancelot Andrews (1928)
 The Use of Poetry and the Use of Criticism (1933)
 After Strange Gods (1934)
 On Poetry and Poets (1957)
c. The Waste Land
荒原

 5 parts: The Burial of Dead, The Game of Chess, The
Fire Sermon, Death by Water, What the Thunder
Said
 chief characteristics
 1. quotations and allusions暗示
 2. objective correlative
 3. juxtaposition并列: mingle brand image with
common image
 4. use of antiquity古风
The Love Song
 modern
man; instead, he represents many other modern
westerners who are between passion and
timidity, between desire and impotence
4. theme
 This poem reflects the decadent modern civilization
and the nightmarish inferno in which modern
Westerners are living in.
5. techiniques
 1) irony
 2) striking images
 3) the form of dramatic monologue
 The poem is written in irregular lines, with but a few
rhymes.
Robert Frost
b. Characteristics
 1. not in the main stream of modern poetry, but with
conventional form and plain language. That’s why
he’s the most popular poet in the 20th century.
 2. a kind of a regionalist----New England, but not
local colorism. He used New England as a metaphor
for the whole world and universe.
 3. a plain poet using symbols from everyday country
life. Simple symbols but express deep meanings.
The Road Not Taken
 1. The poem was written in very regular lines with
iambic pentametre and rhyme scheme of abaab.
 2. The symbolic meaning of the two divergent roads
is rather clear. They represent any important
decisions in one's life.
 3. details:
Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening
 1. It is a lyric poem with iambic tetrametre and
interlocking enclosed rhyme.
 2. It represents a moment of relaxation from the
onerous journey of life, an almost aesthetic
enjoyment and appreciation of natural beauty which
is wholesome and retorative against the chaotic
existence of modern man.
The Lost Generation
 1. term: It is a term in frequent use after WWI in
reference to the young men who survived physically
but were afterwards spiritually and morally adrift. So
the lost generation refers to disillusioned writers who
wrote after WWI. Many of them went to the battle.
After the war, they rebelled against former ideals and
values and can’t find new ones to replace.
 2. It first coined by Gertrude Stein. In Paris, she



opens the door to American expatriates. She once
said to Hemingway, “You’re all a lost generation.”
 3. It was used as preface to The Sun Also Rises. Then
it became popular. Fitzgerald once said they are “a
generation grown up to find all gods died, all wars
fought, all faith in men shaken”.
Ernest Hemingway
 way themeherosituation. Theme: “grace
under pressure”
sm: negative attitude towards the world.
There is only one thing man is certain---death
 3. devotion to truth. He believes the writer's job is to
tell truth.
c. style
 g principle. The meaning here is that the
writer should say only one eighth, in such a way that
the remaining seven eighths be discerned and
provided by the reader.
 ge: short, common, fundamental words,
simple sentence, effect of the language:
clearness, cleanness and great care.
 ue: plays a very important part in his
writings. Hemingway’s dialogue can show setting,
development of plot, characters, even theme.
 tic way: he uses showing instead of telling.
He likes to describes actions (kiss, withdraw hand)
vividly instead of mental description.
 ism
 of stream of consciousness
d. A Farewell to Arms
 1. If we say The Sun Also Rises tells why they lost,
this novel describes how they lost. Thus it can be
read as a footnote to the former.
 2. the double meanings of the title
 3. the hero Henry: Hemingway's hero
 4. theme: war and love. It shows a world of complete
unreason and reflects the mood of the post-war
generation.
F. Scott Fitzgerald
b. The Great Gatsby
 Theme:
 1. about reality and atmosphere of 1920s
 2. failure of American Dream
c. attitude towards the rich: paradoxical
 He is charmed by the rich.
 He is critical of the rich who are corrupted
themselves and meanwhile corrupting others.
d. attitude towards the Jazz Age: insider and outsider
John Steinbeck
b. The Grapes of Wrath
愤怒的葡萄

1. significance
 1) it’s a great social document in 1930s.
 2) A protest novel. In the novel, the author attacks
the decadence, wickedness and cruelty of banks and
land owners and the current social system as a
whole.
 3) themes: unity and faith
unity: Steinbeck believes that strength lies in the
unity of people and he also stresses on individualism.
faith: The Great Depression was the most miserable
period in the 20th century. Even though people suffered a
lot, they still held on their hope and will live on.
2. characters:
 Ma Joad (the mother): embodiment of the theme. She
asked Rose to save the stranger.
 1) she realized unity would bring people strength.
 2) the faith in future
 Tom: shows the change from I (individualism) to we
(unity)
 Jim Casy: a preacher he developed himself from a
labor to an organizer and set up the guiding principle
and after his death, Tom took over his role. The
initial of his name: J.C.---Jesus Christ
William Faulkner
Sound and Fury: divided into 4 parts
 1. themes:
 a) downfall of the South. The south was in
deterioration. It’s going from bad to worse. The
present and the past form a contrast from Benjy’s
eyes. He’s an idiot so his reactions were distinctive
feeling. He felt strongly the loss of love. The
downfall of Mr. Campson was not only a personal
one but also a universal one---the society was in
disorder.
 b) conflict between the oldyoung generations
A Rose For Emily

大连海事大学研究生院-暑假作文500字


河南医科大学分数线-河南理工大学万方


公文写作基础知识-新年贺词


广东外语外贸大学考试中心-江大文理教务系统


淮南职业技术学院-消防演习计划


3月份节日-福州中考网


六年级学生评语-江雪的诗意


手抄报的花边-中班下学期家长会发言稿