人教版初中英语全套语法总结

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2020年12月30日 08:30
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初中英语语法
 词类、句子成分和构词法:
1. 词类:
(1) 名词(n.): 表示人、事物、地点或抽象概念。如:boy, morning, bag, ball, class, orange.
(2) 代词(pron.): 主要用来代替名词。如

who, she, you, it .
(3) 形容词(adj..):表示人或事物的性质或特征。如:good, right, white, orange .
(4) 数词(num.): 表示数目或事物的顺序。如:one, two, three, first, second, third, fourth.
(5) 动词(v.): 表示动作或状态。如:am, is,are,have,see .
(6) 副词(adv.): 修饰动词、形容词或其他副词,说明时间、地点、程度等。如:now, very, here, slowly.
(7) 冠词(art..):用在名词前,帮助说明名词。如:a, an, the.
(8) 介词(prep.): 表示它后面的名词或代词与其他句子成分的关系。如in, on, from, above.
(9) 连词(conj.): 用来连接词、短语或句子。如and, but, before .
(10) 感叹词(interj..)表示喜、怒、哀、乐等感情。如:oh, well, hi, hello.
2. 句子成分:
(1) 主语是句子所要说的人或事物,回答是“谁”或者“什么”。通常用名词或代词担任。
(2) 谓语动词说明主语的动作或状态,回答“做(什么)”。主要由动词担任。
(3) 表语在系动词之后,说明主语的身份或特征。名词、代词或形容词担任。My name is Ping ping .
(4) 宾语表示及物动词的对象或结果,回答做的是“什么”。通常由名词或代词担任。
双宾语:指物的叫直接宾语,指人的叫间接宾语。间接宾语一般放在直接宾语的前面。He wrote me
a letter .有时可把介词to或for加在间接宾语前构成短语,放在直接宾语后面,来强调间接宾语。He
wrote a letter to me .
(5) 定语修饰名词或代词,通常由形容词、代词、数词等担任。
(6) 状语用来修饰动词、形容词、副词,通常由副词担任。He works hard .(他工作努力)
(7) 宾语补足语用来说明宾语怎么样或干什么,通常由形容词或动词充当。They usually keep their
classroom clean. He often helps me do my lessons. The teacher wanted me to learn French all by
myself.(老师要我自学法语)
[注] 同位语通常紧跟在名词、代词后面,进一步说明它的情况。如:Where is your classmate Tom ?
3. 构词法:
(1) 合成法:如:spaceship, headache, basketball, playground等等。
(2) 派生法:
a) 派生名词:①动词+eror ②动词+ing ③动词+(t)ion ④形容词+ness ⑤其他,如:inventor
b) 派生形容词:①名词+y ②名词+ful ③动词+inged ④friendly ⑤dangerous ⑥Chinese; Japanese;
English
c) 派生副词:①形容词+ly ②其它,如:slowly, angrily, full→fully, good→well, possible→possibly
(3) 转换法:
a) 形容词→动词,如:dry(干燥的)→dry(弄干), clean(干净的)→clean(打扫,弄干净),等。
b) 动词→名词,如:look, walk, rest, work, study, swim, go, talk等等。
c) 名词→动词,如:hand(手)→(传递),face(脸)→(面对)等等。
d) 形容词→副词,如:early→early, fast→fast等等。
e) 副词→连词,如:when(什么时候)→(当……时候),等等。
f)

介词→副词,如:in(到……里)→(在里面;在家),on(在…上)→(进行,继续),等等。
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初中英语语法
 二、名词:
1. 专有名词和普通名词两大类:
(1) 专有名词是个别的人、地、物、团体、机构等的专用名称,第一个字母大写,Beijing, Tom


有名词如果是含有普通名词的短语,则必须使用定冠词 the People’s Republic of China
姓氏名如果采用复数形式表示该姓氏一家人(复数含义),如:the Greens格林一家人。
(2) 普通名词分为可数名词和不可数名词。
2. 可数名词的单复数:
(1) s,o,x ,sh,ch结尾加es. 少数以o结尾只加s。如:photo→photos, piano→pianos.
(2) 辅音字母加y结尾,变y为i,再加es。如:family→families, city→cities, party→parties.
(3) 以f或fe结尾的名词,变f或fe为v,再加es。如:shelf→shelves, wolf→wolves, life→lives
不规则:sheep→sheep,tooth→teeth, fish→fish, child→children, ox→oxen, goose→geese
3. 名词所有格:表示所属关系,相当于物主代词,在句中作定语、宾语或主语。其构成法如下:
(1) 表示人或其它有生命的东西的名词常在词尾加’s。Childern’s Day(儿童节), my sister’s book
(2) 以s或es结尾的复数名词。只在词尾加’。如:Teachers’ Day(教师节)
(3) 有些表示时间、距离以及世界、国家、城镇等无生命的名词,也可在词尾加’s. today’s newspaper, ten
minutes’ break(十分钟的课间休息),China’s population(中国的人口).
(4) 无论表示有生命还是无生命的东西的名词,一般均可用介词of短语来表示所有关系。如:a fine
daughter of the Party(党的好女儿).
[注] 两人共有某物时,可以采用 A and B’s 的形式,如:Lucy and Lily’s bedroom
“of+名词所有格名词性物主代词”,称为双重所有格,如:a friend of my father’s(我父亲的一位朋
友), a friend of mine(我的一位朋友)
4. 名词或代词作主语时和谓语之间的单复数的一致问题:
(1) 主语是可数名词单数或不可数名词时,谓语动词用单数形式:如:The computer was a great
invention.(计算机是个了不起的发明)The water in the glass is very cold.(玻璃杯里的水很冷)
(2) 集体名词(如family, class, team, group, row, police, school等)做句子主语时,
a) 如果表示整体概念,则谓语用单数形式,如:Class Three is a very good class.
b) 如果表示其中的所有成员时,则谓语用复数形式,如:Class Three have a map of China.
(3) maths, news等虽然有s结尾,但不是复数,因此谓语仍用单数:The news is very exciting.
(4) glasses, shoes, socks, trousers, gloves等名词往往用复数形式,故谓语用复数。如:
The trousers are very cheap and I want to take them.(裤子很便宜,我想买)
(5) a lot of 后跟名词复数时谓语用复数形式,跟不可数名词时谓语用单数形式。如:A lot of students
are playing baseball now. A lot of time was wasted on that work.
(6) there be 句型中be的单复数由靠近的名词决定。There is a table and four chairs in the room.
(7) both…and…连接两个事物做主语时,谓语一般用复数。Both you and I are required to be here
tomorrow.(你和我明天要求都来)
(8) either…or…或 neither…nor…连接两个人物做句子主语时,谓语采用就近原则。Either you or he is
right.(要么是你对要么是他对) Neither you nor I am going there.(你和我都不打算去那里)
(9) 主语中含有with的短语时,谓语单复数由with之前的人物决定。A woman with a 7-year-old child
was standing at the side of the road.
(10) 表示一段时间或长度概念的复数名词做主语时,谓语一般用单数。Two months is not a short

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初中英语语法
time.(两个月不是个短时间)Two thousand kilometers is quite a long distance.
(11) 主语中含有half of… (three quarters)of… all (of) the ….等词语时,谓语的单复数由名词确
定,Over three quarters of the information on the Internet is in English.(因特网上四分之三以上的信
息是用英语写的) A third of the students were playing near the lake.(学生的三分之一(当时)正在湖
边玩耍) All of the water in these rivers has been polluted.(这些河流中的水已经被污染了)(被动句)
但是population一词又有特殊情况:What’s the population of China?(中国人口是多少?)(句子用
单数) Three quarters of the population in this city are Arabs(阿拉伯人).(这个城市四分之三的人口
是阿拉伯人)(句子用复数)
5. 部分名词用法辨析:
(1) sport

game

match

race: sp ort通常指“户外运动”,以锻炼为主;game意思是“运动、比赛”,
不管户内户外还是脑力体力 ,指以胜负为主的运动;match意为“竞赛、比赛”,多指正式比赛;race
主要表示“赛跑、赛 马、赛车”。如:People all around the world enjoy sports.(全世界的人都喜爱运
动) The 2008 Olympic Games will be held in Beijing.(2008奥运会将在北京举行)(被动句) Our
school football team won the league match(联赛).(我们学校足球队取得了联赛冠军) They were
strong and won the boat race.(汤他们很棒,赢得了划艇比赛)
(2) festival

holiday

vacation: festiv al“节日”,指喜庆的日子或持续一段时间的文娱活动;holiday(假
日、休息日),指法定假 日或风俗习惯,复数可以表示一个较长的假期;vacation“假期”,指学习或工
作中一段长时间 的休息。如:The Shanghai Television Festival will be held next month. Sunday is
a holiday and most people do not work.(星期天是个假日,多数人不工作) What are you going to do
during the summer vacationholidays?(在暑期你打算做什么事情?)
(3) journey

tour

trip

travel: journey指长途旅行,不知终点,含有辛苦的意思;tour指途中作短
期逗留的巡回旅行,强调 游览多处,常用来指观光等;trip通常指往返定时的短途旅行,如出差度假
等;travel多指长 期或长途的观光旅行,尤其指到国外,没有明确目的地,也作不可数名词,指旅行这
一行为。如:He made up his mind to make the journey to Dunhuang.(他拿定主意要去敦煌旅行) He
has gone on a walking tour.(他步行观光去了) He took several trips to Shanghai last yeaar.(去年他
去了上海好几次) Did you go to Santiago during your travels?(旅行期间你去圣地亚哥了吗?)
Travelling through thick forests is dangerous.(在密林里边穿行是很危险的)
(4) sound

noise

voice: sound指各种声音;noise主要指“噪音”;voice指人的“嗓音”。The noise
of the street kept me awake in the night.(街上的喧嚣声让我彻夜难眠) All of a sudden there was
the sound of shots and a cry.(突然间传来几声枪响和一声尖叫) The singer has lost her ringing
voice as a result of a bad cold.(因为感冒的缘故,这个歌唱家失去了她银铃般的嗓音)
(5) fish的问题:指许多条鱼且不管种类时,用fish,单复数相同;fishes 指许多种类的鱼。如:There are
many kinds of fishes in the pool. (池子里有很多种类的鱼) I prefer fish to meat.
 三、代词:
1. 三个不同人称同时出现, ,按照“you→he→I”的顺序表达。如:Both he and I are working at that
computer company. –Who will go there? –You and me.
2. 名词性物主代词相当于名词,既代替事物又表明所属关系,在句子中 往往独立地作主语、宾语或者表
语,后面千万不可以跟名词。This is your cup,but where is mine? Your classroom is very big, but
ours is rather small.(你们的教室很大,我们的相当小)
3. “of + 名词性物主代词”称为双重所有格,作定语时放在名词的后面。A friend of mine came to see me

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初中英语语法
yesterday. (若干朋友中一个) My friend came to see me yesterday. (那个特定的朋友)
4. 反身代词在句子中作宾语表示反射(指一个动作回到该动作执行者本身)。Don’t play with the knife,
you might hurt yourself.(不要玩刀子,那会割伤你的) 作同位语表示强调 The story itself is
good. Only he didn’t tell it well.(故事本身是好的,只是他没有讲好)
5. 指示代词: 指示说明近处或远处、上文或下文、以前或现在的人或事物。such (这样的人物):指
上文提过的人和物; same (同样的人物):指和上文提过的相同的人和物; it (这人这物):指不
太清楚是谁或者是什么时。
Remember never to do such things.(记得永远不要做这样的事情)
Do the same as the teacher tells you. (按老师说的做)
Who is it?(是谁?) ---It’s me!(是我!)
6. 关系代词:用来引导定语从句。
(1) who

which

that

whom 等,将定语从句和主句连接起来。
The student who is drawing a picture is in Grade One.(正在画画的学生是一年级的)
(2) 关系代词who whom指人,如果作从句的宾语,则有时省略。
Do you know the man who is wearing a red hat? (你认识那个戴着红帽子的男人吗?)
(3) 关系代词which 指物,如果作从句的宾语,则有时省略。
Have you found the book which you lost several days ago?(你找到几天前丢失的那本书了吗?)
(4) 关系代词that既可指人也可指物,如果作从句的宾语,则有时省略。
Can you see the man that is running along the river bank ?(你看得见顺着河跑的男人了吗?)
7. 连接代词:用来引导宾语从句、主语从句或表语从句。what,who,whom,which,whose
8. 不定代词:代替或修饰不特指的人或事物的代词叫不定代词。
(1) some和 any:
some一般用于肯定句中,作定语时可修饰可数或不可数名词。如:I have some work to do today. (今
天我有些事情要做) They will go there some day.(他们有朝一日会去那儿) some 用于疑问
句时,表示建议、请求或希望得到肯定回答。如:Would you like some coffee with sugar?
any 一般用于疑问句或否定句中,意思是“任何一些” 、“任何一个”,作定语时可修饰可数或不可数
名词。如:They didn’t have any friends here. (他们在这里没有朋友) Have you got any questions to
ask?(你有问题要问吗?) any 用于肯定句时,意思是“任何的”。Come here with any friend.(随
便带什么朋友来吧。)
(2) no和none:
no只能作定语表示,意思是“没有”,修饰可数名词(单数或复数)或不可数名词。如:There is no time
left. Please hurry up.(没有时间了,请快点) They had no reading books to lend.
none只能独立使用, 在句子中可作主语、宾语和表语,意思是“没有一个人(或事物)”如:None of
them isare in the classroom.(他们当中没有一个在教室里) I have many books, but none is
interesting.(我有很多的书,但没有一本是有趣的)
(3) all和both:
all指三者或以上的人或物。both指两个人或物。如:I know all of the four British students in their
school.(他们学校里四个英国学生我全认识) --Would you like this one or that one? –Both.
(4) every和each:
every只能作定语修饰单数名词,意思是“每一个”,表示整体概念;

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初中英语语法
each可用作主语、宾语、定语等,意思是“每个”或“各个 ”,表示单个概念;可以放在名词前或后跟
of短语,与动词同时出现时要放在“be动词、助动词、情 态动词”之后或行为动词之前。
every和each都用作单数理解。如:Every one of the students in his class studies very hard.(他班上
每个学生学习都很用功) They are very busy. Each of them has something to do.(他们很忙,人人都
有事干)
(5) either和neither:
either意思是“两个中间的任何一个”;n either是either的否定形式,意思是“两个都不”。
neither和either在句子中都用作单数。如:I don’t care much for what to drink. Either of the two will
do. (我不介意喝些什么,两个之中随便哪个都行) --Will you go there by bus or by car? –Neither. I
will go there by train.(你坐公车去还是坐轿车去?一个都不坐,我坐火车去。)
(6) other

the other和anothe:
other(另一、另一些),有复数形式。Some girls are singing under the big apple tree and others are
sitting on the grass talking.(有些女孩在大苹果树下唱歌,别的就躺在草地上说话)
another(另外的,再一,又一) You have had several cakes. Do you really want another one?(你已经吃
了好几块饼子了,你真的还要一块?) I want another four books.(我还要四本书)
the other(另外的一个) This is one of your socks. Where is the other one?
others指“剩余的人物”(指大部分);the others指“其余的人物”,(指全部)。
(7) few

little

a few

a little:
few

little “很少几个”、“几乎没有”,有否定的意思,a few

a little意思是“有几个”、“有些”,有肯
定的意思 ;few

a few与可数名词连用或代替可数的事物, little

a little与不可数名词连用或代
替不可数的事物。He is very poor and he has little money.(他很穷,几乎没有什么钱。) Don’t worry.
There is still a little time left.(别着急,还有一点儿时间呢。) In that polar region there live few
people.(在那个极地地区几乎不住人) You can get a few sweets from him.(你可以从他那儿弄到一
些糖果)
(8) 复合不定代词somebody ,something ,anything, nothing ,everything, everybody等,在句子中当单数使
用。Some…一般用于肯定句 中;any…一般用于疑问句、否定句和条件状语从句中。定语后置。
如:Hey,Lily. There is someone outside the door.(嗨,丽丽,门外有人) He has nothing much to do
today.(他今天没有多少事情做)
(9) so可以代替一件事情,作句子的宾语或表语。如: I don’t think so.(我认为不是这样的。) He lost
a book. So did I.(他丢失了一本书,我也是。)
(10) a lot of

lots of

a number of( large numbers of)

a great deal of

plenty of


a lot of(或lots of)、plenty of既可以修饰不可数名词也可以修饰可数名词的复数形式;
a number of large numbers of只可修饰可数复数,可以换为some

many

a lot of

plenty of。
a great deal of只可以修饰不可数名词(它修饰的词作主语时谓语用单数形式)可以换为much。
A lot of people think that time is money.(许多的人认为时间就是金钱。)
I don’t have to do it in a hurry because I have plenty of time.(我用不着赶忙,因为我有充足的时间。)
I have a number of letters to write today.(今天我有好多信要写)
I spend a great deal of timemoney on shopping.(在购物方面我花费了大量的时间金钱。)
(11) none

no one

nobody:
no one和nobody都表示“没有人”,仅指人,后面不跟of 短语,作主语时谓语用单数形式;

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初中英语语法
none“没有一个人物”,可指人也可以指物, 后面可跟of短语,作主语时谓语可用单数也可用复数。
No one knows how he managed to get the ticket.(没有人知道他是怎样搞到那张票的)
Nobody handed in histheir composition(s) yesterday.(昨天没有一个人交作文。)
None of my friends came to see me that day.(那天没有一个朋友来看我。)
9. 相互代词:表示相互关系的词叫相互代词。
each other表示两者之间, one anther表示许多人之间。如: We must help each other when we are in
trouble.(我们身处困境时要互相帮助。) They sat there without talking to one another each other.(他
们坐在那儿,互相都不说话。)
10. 疑问代词:用来提出问题的代词称为疑问代词。
who

whom

whose

what

which

whoever< br>、
whatever

whichever主要用于特殊疑问句中,一般
放在句首。口语中也常用who代替whom作宾语,但在介词后则只能用whom。如:
Who(m) did you invite to your birthday party?(你都邀请了谁参加你的生日聚会的?)
What does she want to be when she grows up?(她长大了想干什么?)
[注] 注意这个提问:The man in the car is my father.(车里的男人是我父亲)
→Which man is your father?(哪个男人是你的父亲?)
 四、数词:
1. 序数词作“几分之几”讲时,有复数形式。如:15→one fifth 23→ two thirds 47→ four sevenths
12→ a half 14→a quarter 34→ three quarters 50%→ fifty hundredths ( fifty per cent).
2. 序数词前面加the时,表示顺序,加aan时表示“再一、又一”。如:The third lesson is rather difficult.(第
三课相当难) Shall we read the text a third time?(我们把课文读第三遍,好吗?)
 五、冠词
1. 不定冠词a an的用法(an用在元音开头的词的前面):
(1) 表示某一个人或东西,但不具体说明何人或何物。如:There is a dog lying on the ground.
(2) 表示某类人或事物,以区别于其他种类。如:A elephant is much stronger than a man.(大象比人强
壮多了。)(不能译为:一头大象比一个人强壮。)
(3) 表示某类人或事物中的任何一个。如:He is a teacher of English.(他是英语教师。)
(4) 表示“一”这个数量。如:There is a table and four chairs in that dining-room.
(5) 几个用不定冠词的习语:a bit(一点), a little(一点), a few(几个), a lot (许多), a kind of(一种), a pair
of(一副、一双), a number of(大量的), a piece of (一张、一片), half an hour(半小时), have a good
time(玩得开心), have a cold(感冒), make a noise(发出嘈杂声), havetake a (rest

)等。
2. 定冠词the的用法:
(1) 表示特指的人或事物。如:The man with a flower in his hand is Jack..
(2) 指谈话双方都熟悉的人或事物。如:Look at the blackboard,Lily.(莉莉,请看黑板。)
(3) 复述前面提到过的人或事物。如:There is a man under the tree. The man is called Robert.
(4) 表示世界上独一无二的事物。如:The earth turns around the sun.(地球绕太阳旋转。)
(5) 用在表示方位的名词前面。如:There will be strong wind to the south of the Yangtze River.
(6) 在序数词和形容词最高级的前面。如:Who is the first one to go?(谁第一个去?) Of all the stars,
the sun is the nearest to the earth.(在所有的恒星之中太阳离地球最近)
(7) 常用在乐器名称的前面。如:He began to play the violin at the age of 5.

6


初中英语语法
(8) 用在江河、海洋、山脉等名称的前面。如:I have never been to the Himalaya Mountains.
(9) 用在含有普通名词的专有名词的前面。如:He is from the United States of America.
(10) 用在姓氏之前表示一家人。如:The Greens are going to Mount Emei next month.
(11) same之前一般用the。如:Lucy and Lily look the same.(露西和莉莉看上去长得一样)
(12) 几个用定冠词的习语:at the same time (与此同时),make the bed(铺床),in the end(最后),all the
time(一直),by the way(顺便说一下),on the way(在路上)等等。
3. 一些不用冠词的情况:
(1) 专有名词和(第一次使用)一些不可数名词时前面通常不用。如:China is a very large country.(中国
是个大国) Man needs air and water.(人类需要空气和水)
(2) 名词前已有指示、物主或不定代词作定语时不用。如:My pen is much more expensive than
yours.(我的钢笔比你的昂贵多了)
(3) 周名,月名或季节名前一般不用。如:He was born on Monday, February 18,1995.(他出生在1995
年二月十八日,星期一) They usually plant trees on the hills in spring.(春天他们通常在山上植树)
(4) (第一次使用)复数名词表示人或事物的类别时不用。如:Men are cleverer than monkeys.
(5) 三餐饭前不用。如:We have breakfast at home and lunch at school.
(6) 节、假日前一般不用。如:On Children’s Day the boys often get presents from their parents.(在儿童
节,这些男孩经常得到父母的礼物)
(7) 球类名词前不用。如:The children play football on Saturday afternoons.
(8) 城市的重要主要建筑物名称前不用。如:They are now at People’s Cinema.

 六、形容词:
1. 形容词在句子中的位置:
(1) 定语时放在名词的前面,且音节少的词放在音节多的词之前。如:a big yellow wooden wheel(一个
黄色的大木轮)
(2) 表语时放在连系动词之后。如:The price sounds reasonable.(这个价格听起来算是合理)
(3) 宾语补足语时放在宾语之后。如:We must try our best to keep our environment clean.(我们必须尽
力保持我们的环境清洁)
(4) 后置的情况:
a) 修饰复合不定代词。如:Something serious has happened to him.(他发生了严重的事故)
b) 与表示“长、宽、高、重、老、远离”的词连用时。如:He’s 1.8 metres tall.(他身高1.8米。)The
moon is about 380,000 kilometres away from the earth.(月球离地38万公里)
2. 有关形容词的用法辨析:
(1) whole与all:① the whole + 名词; ②all (of) the + 名词。如:He was busy the whole morning.(整
个早晨他都很忙) He can remember all the words he learns.(他能记住学过的所有单词)
(2) tall与high, s hort与low:指人的个子时用tall与short;指其他事物时一般用high与low。如:
He’s very tallshort. Tall trees are standing on both sides of that avenue.(大道的两侧有高大的树木)
A few people live on high mountains.(少量的人住在高山上)
(3) real与true:real一般指东西的真假,译为“真的”;而true则指事情或消息的可靠性,译为“ 真实的”。
如:This is a real diamond(
钻石
) and it’s very expensive.(这是货真价实的钻石,非常贵) --Is that
true?—Yes. I heard it with my own ears.(那真实吗? 是的,我亲耳所听)

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初中英语语法
(4) int erested与interesting的区别:interesting指人或东西“有趣的”,作定语或表 语,而interested则表
示人对别的事物“感兴趣的”,只能作表语。如:The man is very interesting and all the children like
him. (这个人很有趣,孩子们都喜欢他) This book is interesting and you can really enjoy yourself.(这
本书很有趣,你会真正获得享受) I am interested in science.(我对自然科学感兴趣)
(5) such用法: such + a(n) + 名词(单数)(+that从句)。如:I have never seen such a foolish(愚蠢的)
boy.(我从来没有见过这么蠢的男孩) He had such a terrible accident that he could never forget
it.(他遭遇了这么可怕的事故,他永远也不会忘记)
(6) good与well:表示 “好”时,作定语或表语用good,作状语用well;表示“(身体)好”时用well.如:Doing
sports is good for us.(进行运动对我们有益) Study well and make progress every day.(好好学习,天
天向上) --How are you?—I am very well.(你好吗?我很好。)
(7) nice与fi ne:nice表示令人愉快的,可以指东西、人物外表等;fine一般指身体或天气好。如:Let’s
go and share(分享) the nice cake.(我们去分享那块美味的蛋糕吧) She is a nice girl.(他是个漂亮的
姑娘) What a fine day!(多好的天气!) He’s fine recently(最近).(近来他身体不错)
(8) too much与much too:too much表示“太多的”,修饰事物数量;much too表示“太过,过分”,修饰形
容词或副词。如:I am full because I have had too much rice.(我饱了,因为我吃了太多的米饭) That
coat is much too dear.(那件大衣太贵了)
(9) quick< br>、
fast与soon:quick与fast基本同义,quick往往指反应速度快,fas t往往指运动速度快,而soon
则表示时间上很快即将发生。如:After a quick breakfast, he hurried to school leaving his bag at
home.(匆匆地吃过早饭,他朝学校赶去,却把书包忘记在家) A train is much faster than a bus.(火车
比公共汽车快得多) His father will be back to China very soon.(他父亲很快就要返回中国)
(10) lonely与alone:lonely是表示 心理活动的形容词,意思是:“孤独的,寂寞的”,作定语或表语;alone
的意思是:“独自的,单 独的”,指无人陪伴,仅作表语,(作为副词的alone可作状语)。如:He lives alone
but he doesn’t feel lonely.(他一人独住,但是并不感到孤独) He is a lonely person. You can not easily
get on well with him.(他是个孤独的人,你要和他相处好实在不易)
(11) other与else: other放在名词前;else修饰不定代词、疑问词、little、much,后置,另外,or else表
示“否则”,是连词。如:The other students are on the playground.(其他学生在操场上) Who else can
work out this maths problem?(还有谁能解出着道数学题?) This is nobody else’s money. It’s
mine.(这不是别的什么人的钱,是我的。) Do you have anything else to say for yourself?(你还有什
么要为自己说的吗?
(12) special与espec ial:表示事件不同寻常、过分或特殊时,两个词可互换,但special较为常用。另
外,spe cial还可以表示特别的目的。如: She pays (e)special attention to clothes.(她非常注重着装)
These are special chairs for small children.(这些是专门给小孩子的椅子)
(13) gone

lost

missing:gone表示“丢了,没了”,含一去不复返的意思 ,也可以表示“死了”,作表语或宾
补,不可以作定语;lost表示“丢失”,含难以找回的意思,可 作定语、表语或宾补;missing表示“失踪
了,不见了”,强调某人物不在原处,可作定语、表语 或宾补。如:My fever(高烧) is gone, but I still have
a cough.(发烧消退了,但我仍然咳嗽) The parents found the lost child at last.(家长终于找到了迷路
的孩子) My dictionary is ’s taken it away?(我的字典不见了,谁拿走了?) For more
detailed information of the missing girls, please visit our website.(如果想知道失踪女孩们的详情,请
访问我们的网站)
(14) liv ing

alive

live

lively:四个词都 来源于动词live“生活、居住”。

8


初中英语语法
living:①“活着的、现存的”,②一模一样的、逼真的,③相当于lively,“强烈的、活泼的” ;
live:指东西“活的”,可以替换为living;
alive:作表语,指人“活着的”,如果作定语,则放在名词的后面;
lively:①有生气的、活泼的、快活的,②(色彩)鲜艳的,③生动的、真实的。
例如:A living language should be learned orally.(活的语言应该从口头上学)(被动句)
We have a living hope that you will succeed.(我们强烈地希望你能成功)
Is she still alive?(她还活着吗?)
They are the happiest children alive.(他们是活着的最开心的孩子)
This is a live fish.(这是条活鱼) A live wire is dangerous.(有电的电线是危险的)
She is as lively as a kitten.(她像小猫一样可爱)
He gave a lively description of the football match.(他生动地描述了那场足球赛)
(15) sick与ill:sick和ill都表示“生病的”,但是,sick可以做定语、表语 ,而ill只能做表语。如:He has
been illsick for a long time and he is very weak now.(他病了很久,现在非常虚弱) Vets help treat
sick pets and most of the pets’ owners like them.(兽医帮助诊治患病的宠物,很受宠物主人们的喜爱)
(16) the poor(穷人们) the rich(富人们):“the+形容词”这一结构可以表示一类人物,复数含义。如:We
must try our best to help the poor.(我们应该尽力帮助穷人们)
The rich never know how the poor are living.(有钱人哪知穷人怎么过日子)
 七、副词 说明事情发生的时间、地点、原因、方式等,或说明其它形容词或副词的程度。
1. 副词在句子中的位置以及作用:
(1) 作状语:
a) 时间副词:一般放在句首或句尾,already、just一般放在动词的前面。如:They have already been
to the UK twice.(他们去过英王国两次) Soon the lost boy found his way back home.(不久迷路的
孩子找到了回家的路)
b) 频度副词:Sometimes I get up early.(我有时起得早) The workers usually have lunch at the
factory.(工人们通常在厂里吃午饭) Take this medicine twice a day.(这种药一天吃两次)
c) 方式副词:一般放在行为动词之后,suddenly可以放在句首、句尾或动词之前。如:Old people
can hardly walk as quickly as young people.(老年人几乎不可能走得和年轻人一样快) Suddenly
he saw a light in the dark cave(山洞).
d) 地点副词:一般放在句尾,但here

there还可放在句首。如:There you can see thousands of bikes
running in all directions(
方向
).(在那里,你可以看到成千上万的自行车朝各个方向流动) The
frightened wolf ran away.(受到惊吓的狼逃开了) He walked out quietly and turned back
soon.(他悄悄地走了出去,很快又返回)
e) 程度副词:修饰动词时,放在动词之前 ;修饰形容词或副词时,放在形容词或副词之前。但注
意,enough总是放在被修饰的形容词或动词 的后面;only位置比较灵活,总是放在被修饰的词的
前面。如:I nearly forgot all about it if he did not tell me again.(如果他不再次告诉我,我几乎把
那事全忘了) It was so strange that I could hardly believe my ears.(它那么奇怪一直我都不能相
信我的耳朵) She got to the station early enough to catch the first bus.(她早早地赶到车站赶上
了首班车)
f) 疑问副词:用于对句子的状语进行提问,位置总是在句首。如:When and where were you
born?(你何时何地出生?) Why did little Edison sit on some eggs?(小爱迪生为什么要坐在鸡蛋

9


初中英语语法
上?) How do you do?(你好!)
g) 连接副词:用来引导主语从句、宾语从句和表语从句,在从句中作状语。How I am going to kill
the cat is still a question.(我打算怎样杀死那只猫还是个问题) That is why everyone is afraid of
the tiger.(那就是人人都害怕老虎的原因) He wondered how he could do it the next day.(他不知
道第二天怎样做那事)
h) 关系副词:用来引导定语从句,在从句中作状语。如:This is the place where Mr Zhang once
lived.(这就是张先生曾经住过的地方) Please tell me the way how you have learned English so
well.(请告诉我你的英语是怎样学得这么好的方法)
i) 其它副词:如:He went to the Palace Museum and I went there,too.(他去了故宫博物院,我也去
了) Maybe your ticket is in your inside pocket.(也许你的票就在你的里边衣袋里) --Tom
doesn’t have a computer. –Nor do I.(汤姆没有计算机,我也没有。)
(2) 作表语:地点副词一般可以作表语,放在be等连系动词之后,说明人物所处的位置。如:I’m very
sorry he isn’t in at the moment.(很抱歉,他此刻不在家) I have been away from my hometown for
nearly 20 years.(我离开家乡有将近20年了) Jim is over there.
(3) 作 定语:时间副词(如now、then)以及许多地点副词都可以作名词的定语,放在名词的后面。如:
People now often have their festival dinners at restaurants.(现在的人们经常在餐馆里吃节日晚宴)
Women there were living a terrible life in the 1920s.(在二十世纪20年代那儿的女人过着可怕的日
子)
(4) 作宾语补足语:地点副词一般可以作宾语补足语。如:Put your dirty socks away, Jim! They are
giving out bad smell!(吉姆,把你的脏袜子拿开!它们在散发着臭气。) Father kept him in and doing
his lessons.(父亲把他关在家里做作业)
[注] “动词+副词”的宾语如果是代词,则该副词应该放在代词之后。如:He wrote down the word.(他
写下了那个词。)→He wrote it down.(他把它写了下来。)
2. 有关副词的重要注释:
(1) as…as…常构成一些词组:as soon as…(一旦…就…), as well as…(同样), as+形容词副词+as
possible(尽可能…地)。如:Please ring me up as soon as you get to Beijing.(请你一到北京就给我写
信。) Miss Gao hurried to the school gate as quickly as possible.(高小姐尽快地赶到了校门口。)
[注释] “as long much as + 名词”可以表示“长达多达…”的含义。如:The house costs as much as
five hundred thousand yuan.(那幢房子花费高达50万元。) They stayed in the cave(山洞)as long as
two weeks.(他们呆在山洞里长达两周。)
(2) later

aft er

ago

before的用法:①“一段时间+laterago”分 别表示“(多久)以后以前”,主要用于
过去时态。②“afterbefore+某个时刻”分别表示 “在某时刻之后之前”,此时两个词是介词。③ago
与before:ago只能用于过去时,bef ore用于完成时。如:He had an accident a week ago.(一周前出
了一个事故) Some years later, the boy became a very famous singer.(数年后这个男孩成了著名的
歌唱家) Have you been there before?(你从前到过那儿吗?) After a few years he gave up
smoking.(过了几年他戒了烟。)
(3) t oo

also

either

nor的用法:too( “也”)用于肯定句和疑问句的末尾,且用逗号隔开;also(“也”)
用于肯定句句子谓语动词之前 ;either(“也”)用于否定句末尾,也用逗号隔开;nor(“也不”)用于倒装
句句首;如: Are you American,too?(你也是美国人吗?) He is not happy and I am not happy,
either.(他不愉快,我也不。) He didn’t watch the football game. Nor did I.(他没有看足球赛,我也没

10


初中英语语法
有。) You can also find the market is very good.(你还可以发觉那个市场很好。)
(4) enough

too

so

very

quite

very much的用法: enough (“足够,十分”)放在形容词或副词之后;
too(“太”)、v ery(“非常”)、quite(“相当”)、so(“如此地”)等放在形容词或副词之前,very much(“非常”)
放在动词之后。如:It’s toosoveryquite expensive.(它太贵那么贵非常贵相当贵。) I don’t like
sweets very much.(我不很喜欢糖果)
[注] very与 much的区别:very修饰形容 词、副词的原级和现在分词形容词,much修饰形容词和
副词的比较级;much还可以修饰疑问句和 否定句中的动词,very不可以。如:He is very stupid.(他
很笨) The film was very moving and everyone swept.(电影非常动人,大家都哭了) You must work
much harder or you will fail to enter the good school.(你得学习更努力,不然你考不进那所好学校) I
don’t like him much.(我不太喜欢他)
(5) sometimes

sometime

some times

some time的用法:sometimes(有时)用于一般现在时、
sometime(在将来某时)用于将来时、 some times(数次)表示次数、some time(一些时间)表示一段时
间。如:Sometimes they go hiking in the mountains.(他们有时徒步旅行到山里去) I will stay here
some time.(我会在这儿呆些时候的。) I will meet your father sometime.(我什么时候要见见你的父
亲。)
(6) how
what用于感叹句的用法:对句子中的形容词或副词感叹时用how,对人或事物(可能含有形
容词作修饰语)进行感叹用what. 如:What a fine day (it is) today!(今天天气真好!) How difficult
(the problem is)!((问题)真难呀!)
(7) already

yet的用法:在完成时 中,already一般用于肯定句,yet一般用于否定句和疑问句。如:Have
you done it already?(你已经做好了?) I have not had my breakfast yet.(我还没有吃早饭呢。)
(8) hard与hardly的用法:h ard作为副词意思是:“努力地,猛烈地”,hardly是否定词,意思是:“几乎
不”,一般与情 态动词cancould连用。如:They study English very hard.(他们英语学得很刻苦) You
can hardly see a person spit in a public place.(在公共场所你几乎看不到一个人随地吐痰)
(9) like...very much

like...better(=pr efer)

like...best的用法:三个短语分别表示“非常喜欢”、“更喜欢”、
“最喜欢”。如:I like baseball very much.(我非常喜欢棒球) Do you like butter better than cheese?(
They like hamburgers best.
(10) quitewhat+a+形容词+名词” 的用法:记住:①quitesuchwhat...+a+形容词+名词;②toosohow+形
容 词+a+名词;③rather+a+形容词+名词 = a+ rather+形容词+名词。如:I have never seen such a
strange guy(
家伙
).(我从未见过这样奇怪的家伙) It is quite a nice day for a walk.(这真是散步的好
日子)
(11) how 的几个短语:how often“多常,每隔多久”,用于一般时态,对表示频度的词语进行提问; how
soon“多久以后”,用于将来时态; how long“多久”,用于过去时、完成时或其他时态; how many
times“多少次”,用于过去时或完成时,对总计次数进行提问; how much“多么,多少”,对程度进行提
问,也可以对数量(不可数)或金钱进行提问。如:How long have you been like this?(你这样已经多
久了?) How often does he wash his face?(他每隔多久洗一次脸?)
(12) much

more与most的用法:这三个词除了是形容词作名词的修饰语之外,还是程度 副词,much表
示“很”,修饰原级形副,more表示“更”用来构成多音节形副的比较级,mos t表示“最”用来构成多音
节形副的最高级。此外,much也可以修饰比较级形副。如:This park is much more beautiful than
that one.(这个公园比那个漂亮多了) It is the most instructive film I have ever seen.(这是我看过的
最有教育意义的电影)

11


初中英语语法
(13) 被动语态中,方式副词一般放在be与谓语动词之间。如The runner was badly hurt.(赛跑运动员受
了重伤) English is widely spoken in the world today.(如今世界上英语说得很广泛)
3. 形容词、 副词的原级、比较级和最高级
(1) 规则变化:单音节和部分双音节,在原级的后面加上er,est构成比较级和最高级。a)直接加er,est

b)以重读闭音节结尾的,要双写最后一个辅音字母,后加er,est

c)以辅音字母+y结尾的,先把y改为
i再加上er,est: 两个音节或两个以上的音节的,在原级前加more most.
(2) 不规则变化:
原级
good好的
well好;(身体)好的,
bad,badly糟糕的,糟糕地
ill(身体)不舒服的
many许多的(可数)
much许多的(不可数);非常
little少的
far远的;远地
比较级
better更好的
最高级
best最好的
worse更糟糕的,更糟糕地;worst最糟糕的,最糟糕地;
(身体)更不舒服的 (身体)最不舒服的
more更多的;更
less更少的
farther更远的;更远地
further进一步的(地)
most最多的;最
least最少的
farthest最远的;最远地
furthest最深刻的(地)
4. 形容词和副词的原级、比较级和最高级的用法:
(1) 讲述某人物自身的情况时,用原级。基本句型是:
主语() + 谓语动词 + (verytoosoquiterather…) + 形容词副词原级 +….
He is very old now.(他现在很老了) They ran quite fast.(它们跑得相当快)
☆表示两者之间没有差别时,使用句型:
主语(第一个人物) + 谓语动词 + as + 形容词副词原级 + as + 第二个人物 +….
He is as excited as his younger sister.(他和他妹妹一样兴奋) Lily rode her bike as slowly as an old
lady.(莉莉骑车像老太太一样慢) They picked as many apples as the farmers (did).
☆表示第一个人比不上第二个人时,使用句型:
主语+ 谓语动词(否定式) + as so + 形容词副词原级 + as + 第二个人物+….
He is not so as excited as his younger sister.(他没他妹妹那么兴奋) Lily did not ride her bike so
as slowly as an old lady. (莉莉骑车不像老太太那样慢) They didn’t pick so as many apples as the
farmers (did). (他们摘的苹果不如农民多)
(2) 讲述两者有差异,第一个人物超过第二个人物时,用比较级。基本句型:
主语(‘A’)+谓语动词+(mucha littleevenstill)+比较级+than+第二个人物(‘B’)+….
A modern train is much faster than a car.(现代的火车比轿车快多了) This book didn’t cost me
more than that one.(这本书花费我的钱不比那本多)
讲述两者有差异,第一个人物不及第二个人物时,用比较级。句型是:
主语(‘A’) + 谓语动词 + less+ (多音节形副)比较级 + than + 第二个人物(‘B’) +….
I think English is less difficult than maths.(我认为英语不比数学难) Do you think it less important
to learn a foreign language?(你认为学外语不那么重要吗?)
(3) 讲述某人物是一群之中最突出的一个时,用最高级。句型是:
主语() + 谓语动词 +(the) +形容词副词最高级 +in of ….
The Changjiang River is the longest in China. He jumped (the) highest of the three (boys).
5. 关于比较等级的重要注释:

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初中英语语法
(1) “the+比较级…,the+比较级…”表示“越…就越…”。如:The more trees we plant,the better it will
be.(我们栽的树越多,情况就会越好) The harder you try,the greater your progress is.(你越是努力,进
步就越大)
(2) 一般的形容词或副词的比较级前面可以加mucha littleevenstill,而表示数量的more之前还可以加
some any no one two many several a lot等词。如:It is much colder today than yesterday.(今天
比昨天冷多了) Would you like some more coffee?(你还要些咖啡吗?)He did not eat any more.(他
没有再吃)
(3) more than less than分别可以理解为“多于少于”,相当于副词,more than=over; less than=under.
如:I lived in New York for more than four months.(我在纽约生活了四个多月)
(4) “one of the +最高级+名词(复数)”整个短语为单数含义,谓语要用单数形式。如:One of the oldest
houses has been burnt in a fire.(最古老的一幢房子在一场大火中被烧毁了)
(5) “Which Who+动词+形 副”句型中,如果有两个选项,形副用比较级,如果有三个选项,形副用最高
级。如:Who has more books, Lin Tao or Han Mei?(林涛和韩梅谁的书最多?) Which is the
heaviest,a pig,a horse or an elephant?(猪、马、象哪个最重?)
(6) 上下文中含有botheitherneit hertwotwins等表示两个事物的词时,用比较级,而且往往还要加the;
含有allnon eno one every 等表示三个或三个以上事物时,用最高级。如: --Do you like the smaller
one?—Neither.(小一点的那个你喜欢吗?一个都不喜欢) --Which do you like best? –All of
them!(你最喜欢哪个?全部。)
 七、介词
1. 介词的主要用法:介词 是一种虚词,不能独立使用。介词之后一般有名词或代词(宾格)或相当于名
..
词的其他词类 、短语或从句作它的宾语,即构成介词短语。有些介词是由两个以上的词构成的短语
介词,如:out of(从…中出来), because of(因为), away from(距离…), on top of(在…顶上), ever
since(自从…), next to(在…隔壁), according to(根据…)等。
2. 介词短语的句法作用:介词短语相当于一个形容词或副词,可用作状语、定语和表语。如:The man
came .(状)(那个人走下楼来)The woman is from the
countryside.(定)(头上戴花的妇女来自乡下)The teacher is now with the pupils.(表)(老师现在和学生
在一起)
3. 介词短语在句子 中的位置:做状语时可以放在句首或句尾;作表语时放在连系动词之后;作定语
时只能放在被修饰的名词 之后。如:He wanted to find a good job in Shanghai the next year.(状
语)(他想来年在上海找份好工作) They searched the room for the thief.(他们在房间里搜索小偷)
The letters are for you.(表语)(信是给你的) Have you seen a cat with a black head and four white
legs?(定语)(你看见一只黑头白腿的猫了吗?)
4. 重要注释:
(1) this that these those last next a every each等词构成的时间短语,前面不用任何介词。如:
Every year travellers from abroad come to visit Pingyao.(每年都有国外的游客来游览平窑镇) He
had a bad cold that week.(那个星期他患重感冒)
(2) for有时用来引出动词不定式的逻辑主语,常翻译成“对于…而言”。如:It’s too hard for me to finish
the work in only one hour.(让我在区区一个小时内完成这项工作太难了) The house is big enough
for 10 men to live in.(房子够大的可以容10个人住)
(3) of有时用来表示后面的人物正好是前面的表语的逻辑主语。如:It’s very nicekind of you to do

13


初中英语语法
so.(你这么做真是太好了)
(4) 介词有时会与它的宾语分离,而且宾语前置。
a) 当宾语是疑问词时。Who are you talking about?(你们在谈论谁?)
b) 宾语在从句中当连接词时。He has a younger brother who he must take good care of.(他有
一个需要他照顾的小弟。) Do you know who our teacher is talking with over there?(你知道我们
的老师在那边和什么人谈话吗?)
c) 动词不定式作定语且该动词为不及物动词,后面有介词。I finally found a chair to sit on.
5. 某些介词的用法辨析:
(1) in

on

at:表示时间时, in表示在一段时间里(在将来时句子中则表示在一段时间之后), on表示
在具体的某一天或者某天的上下午等, at表示在某个时刻或者瞬间; 表示地点时, in表示在某个
范围之内, on表示在某个平面上或与一个面相接触,at则表示在某个具体的场所或地点。如:He
was born on the morning of May 10th. I usually get up at 7

00 in the morning. His glasses are
right on his nose. He is at the cinema at the moment.
(2) after与in:“after+(具体时刻从句)”表示“在…时刻之后 ”常用于一般时态;“in+(一段时间)”表示“在
(多久)之后”,常用于将来时态。如:He said that he would be here after 6

00. My father is coming
back from England in about a month.

come的进行时表示将来
(3) since与for表示时间的用法区别:“since+(具体时刻that- 从句)”表示“自从…起一直到现在”,“for
+(一段时间)”表示“总共有…之久”,都常用于完成时态;如:Uncle Li has worked in this factory since
1970. Uncle Li has worked in this factory for over 30 years.
(4) by

in与with表示方式的用法区别: by主要表示“乘坐”某个交 通工具或“以……方式”,在被动句
中可以表示动作的执行者;in表示“使用”某种语言文字,wit h表示“使用”某个具体的工具、手段。
如:We see with our eyes and walk with our feet. Please write that article in English. Let’s go to the
zoo by taxi. It was written by Lao She.
(5) through与across

over: through指“穿过…(门洞人群树林)”; across和over可以指“跨越…(街
道河流 )”,可互换,但是表示“翻过…”时只能用over. 如:Just then a rat ran across the road. There
is a bridge acrossover the river. They climbed over the mountain and arrived there ahead of
time.(他们翻过大山提前到达了那里) The visitors went through a big gate into another park.(参观
者们穿过一个大门来到另一个公园)
(6) at the end of

by the end of

to the end

in the end的用法区别:
at the end of…既可表示时间也可表示地点,译为“在…末;在…尽头”,常与过去时连用;
by the end of…只能表示时间,译为“在…前;到…为止”,常用于过去完成时;
in the end与at last基本等义,表示“终于、最后”,通常用于过去时;
to the end译为“到…的终点为止”,前面往往有表示运动或连续性的动词。
By the end of last term we had learned 16 units of Book III.
At the end of the road you can find a big white house with brown windows.
They left for Beijing at the end of last week.
In the end he succeeded in the final exams.(他最终在期末考试中考及格了)
We should go on with the work to the end.(我们应该把工作干到底)
Follow this road to the end and you will see a post office.
(7) for a moment

for the moment

in a moment

at the moment的区别:

14


初中英语语法
for a moment“一会儿、片刻”(=for a while),常与持续性动词连用;
for the moment“暂时、目前”,常用于现在时;
in a moment“一会儿、立即、马上”(=soon; in a few minutes),一般用于将来时;
at the moment“此刻,眼下”(=now),用于现在进行时。
Please wait for a moment. I’ll come back in a moment. I am very busy at the moment.
Let’s leave things as they are for the moment.(暂时就维持现状吧!)
(8) 用介词but引出另一 个动词时要注意:如果前面有do,后面就用原形动词,前面没有do时,后面的动
词要加to。如:I could do nothing but wait. They had no choice but to fight.
(9) in front of“在…的前面”, 与in the front of“在…的前部”。如:A car was parking in front of the hall.
In the front of the hall stood a big desk.
(10) except与besides:except表示排除掉某人物, 即不包含;而besides表示包含,即“不仅……又……”。
Everyone went to the Palace Museum except Tom. Besides Chinese he also studied many other
subjects.
 八、动词
1. 动词的分类:
类别 意 义 例 句
含有实在的意义,表示动作或状态,在She has some bananas.
实义
句子中能独立作谓语。分为vi.和vt.
I’m reading an English book now.
本身有一定的词义,但不能独立作谓His father is a teacher.
语,必须和表语一起构成谓语。 Twins usually look the same.
本身没有词义,不能独立作谓语,只能He doesn’t speak English.
助动词
和主要动词一起构成谓语动词,用来表We are playing basketball.
示否定、疑问、时态、语态等。
连系
本身有一定的意义,不能独立作谓语,You can keep the books for two weeks.
情态 只能和主要动词一起构成谓语动词,表May I smoke here?
示说话人的语气和情态。 We must go now.
(1) must:表示“必须”时否定形式是mustn’t;表示“一定”时,否定形式是“can’t” 如:We must be very
careful when we cross the road. It must be Jack.(那准是杰克) I haven’t seen Kate today. She can’t
be here.(我今天没有看到过凯特,她不可能在这里)
(2) 用must(必须)进行提问时,肯定回答用must,否定回答用needn’t;用mus t(一定)进行提问时,肯定回
答仍用must,但是否定回答用can’t.如:Must we clean the room before we leave? –Yes,you must.或
No,you needn’t. Must she be in the romm? –Yes,she must.或No,she can’t.(她一定在房间里吗?是
的,一定。 不,不可能在。)
(3) “have to”表示“不得不”、“必须”。We’ll have to leave now for it is very late at night.
have to的疑问形式是:助动词+…+have to,否定形式是:助动词+not+have to或者用needn’t.如:
Do you have to stay until 8 o’clock? You don’t have to do so.(=You needn’t do so.)
(4) shall在问句中,可表示征 求对方意见,与第一人称连用;在陈述句的第二、三人称的主语后或表示
“命令”、“警告”、“允许” 等。如:Shall we go to the zoo this weekend?(我们这个周末去动物园好吗?)
He shall bring his own book next time.(他下次必须带自己的书来)
(5) should可表示“劝告”、“建议”、“惊奇”等意思。We should speak to old people politely.
(6) will表示“意愿”、“决心”等意思,一般与第二人称连用。如:Will you please close the door for me?(请

15


初中英语语法
你替我把门关上好吗?) I will teach you a lesson.(我要教训你一顿)
(7) would表示过去的“意愿”、“决心”等。He would sit near the fire every time he returned home.(每次
他回到家中总要坐在火炉边) would也可以表示现在的情况,语气比“will”婉转、客气,通常用“I
would like to”或“I should(I’d) like to”来表示。如:Would you like to have a rest at the moment?(你
现在想要休息一下吗?)
2. 规则动词变化表:
原形动词结尾情况
一般情况
s,x,ch,sh,o结尾
辅音字母+y结尾
重读闭音节一元一辅结尾
不发音的e结尾
ie结尾
三人称单
+s
+es
y→i,+es
+s
+s
+s
现 在 分 词
+ing
+ing
+ing
双写辅音字母,+ing
去掉e,+ing
ie→y,+ing
过去式和过去分词
+ed
+ed
y→i,+ed
双写辅音字母,+ed
+d
+d
[注]:在加ing或ed时动词如果以“r”结尾,尾音节又重读的动词,“r”应双写。
3. be(“是存在”)动词的各种时态变化:
一 般 现 在 时
I am….
You are.…
HeSheIt is….
WeYouThey are….
一 般 过 去 时
I was….
You were.…
HeSheIt was….
WeYouThey were….
一 般 将 来 时
(I等各人称) will be….
I am
HeSheIt is going to be…
WeYouThey are
过 去 将 来 时
(I等各人称) would be….
I was
HeSheIt was going to be…
WeYouThey were
现 在 完 成 时
I have been….
You have been….
SheheIt has been….
WeYouThey have been….
过 去 完 成 时
I had been….
You had been….
SheheIt had been….
WeYouThey had been….
[注]:否定句句型变化时, am后面not不可以缩写;
4. 其它谓语动词(主动语态)的时态变化一览表:
现在时态 一般现在时 现在进行时 一般将来时
will + 动词原形
am

is

are
+going to+动词原形
过去将来时
现在完成时
Have

has
+过去分词

过去完成时
动词原形(单三加am

is

are
谓语动词
s es),问、否借 +动词-ing
构成
用助词do does)
过去时态 一般过去时 过去进行时
动词用过去式, was

were
谓语动词
问、否借用助词 +动词-ing
构成
did
 八种时态的具体用法:
would + 动词原形 had
was

were +过去分词
+going to+动词原形
1. 一般现在时 表示现阶段经常或习惯发生的动作或存在的状态,或说明主语的特征。
(1) 表示客观真理、事实。The earth turns round the sun. Light travels faster than sound.
(2) 表示十分确定会发生 (如安排好的事情)或按照时间表进行的事情,用一般现在可以表达将来,句子
中可以有将来时间。如: The train for Haikou leaves at 8

00 in the morning.(开往汉口的列车上午
8点开车)
(3) 在时间状语从句中(以when, after, before, while, until, as soon as等引导)和条件状语从句中(以
if,unless引导),用一般现在时代替一般将来 时,句子可以有将来时间。如:Please ring me up as soon

16


初中英语语法
as you arrive in Germany.(你一到德国就给我打电话) If it rains tomorrow,we will have to stay at
home.(如果明天下雨我们就只好呆在家)
(4) 一般现在时用于倒装句中可以表示正在发生的动作,动词以come, go为主。如:Here comes the bus.
(车来了) There goes the bell.(铃响了)


(5) 人的心理活动和感官动作一般用一般现在时而不用现在进行时表达,常见动词有:like, love, hate,
dislike, want, wish, hope, think(认为),understand, remember, forget, mean, need, hear, feel, see. 如:
I think it is going to snow.(我想天要下雪了) I really hope you can enjoy your stay here.(我真的希望
你愉快地呆在这儿)
2. 一般过去时 表示过去某时发生的动作或状态,动作或状态可能一次性,也可能经常发生。
(1) 时间状语表示过去具体时刻发生的一次性动作.
(2) 时间状语表示过去一段时间内不知何时发生的一次性动作:yesterday, last (year等), in (1998 等)。
如:He came to our city in the year 2000.
(3) 时间状语表示过去一个阶段中经常发生的事情:Mr Jackson usually went to evening schools when
he was young.
(4) 讲故事、对过去经历的回忆、双方都明白的过去事件等一般用过去时,而且经常省略时间状语。如:
I happened to meet Rose in the street.(我正好在街上遇到露西)
3. 一般将来时 表示将来某一时刻或经常发生的动作或状态。
(1) 时间状语引导:tomorrow, next (year), one day, ,soon, in the future, when的从句等。
(2) 用will构成的将来时,表示动作与人的主观愿望无关。“shall”用于第一人称,“will” 用于所有人称。
如:I will graduate from this school soon.(我很快就要从这所中学毕业了) You will stay alone after I
leave.(我走了之后你就要一个人过了)
(3) “amisare going to+动词原形”表示打算或准备要做的事情,或者主观判断即将要发生的事情, It’s
going to rain soon.(天快要下雨了)
(4) 表示一个人临时决定要做某事,可以用will表达。如:I will go to the lab to get some chemicals. So
please wait until I return.(我要到化学实验室去取些药品,请等我回头)
(5) shall和will 在口 语的一些疑问句中相当于情态动词。Shall一般与第一人称连用,will与第二人称
连用。如:S hall we go to the zoo next Saturday?(我们下周六去动物园好吗?) Will you please open
the door for me?(替我把门打开好吗?)
(6) “be to +动词原形”表示按照计划将要发生的事情。如:An angel came to tell her that she was to have
this special boy.


4. 现在进行时表示现在正在进行的动作或是现阶段正发生而此刻不一定在进行的动作。
(1) 现在进行时由“助动词be (am is are ) +现在分词”构成。
(2) 现在进行时的时间状语有: now, this …, these…等,但经常不用。如:What are you doing up in the
tree?(你在树上干什么?) I am writing a long novel these days.(我最近在写一本长篇小说)
(3) 表示即将发生的动作,一般指近期安排好的事情。常见的动词有:come, go, stay, leave, spend, do
等。如:I’m coming now.(我就来) What are you doing tomorrow?(你明天干什么?) He is leaving
soon.(他就要走了)
(4) 表示频繁发生或反复进行的动作,常与always等频 度副词连用,以表示赞扬、不满或讨厌等感情色
彩。如:He is always borrowing money from me and forgetting all about it some time later.(他老是向
我借钱,过一些时候就忘得一干二净)

17


初中英语语法
5. 过去进行时 表示过去某一时刻或某阶段正在进行的动作。
(1) “was(第一、三人称单数)或were(第二人称单数和各人称的复数)+现在分词”构成。
(2) 过去进行时的时间状语有:then, at that time, this time yesterday, at (eight) yesterday (morning),(a
year) ago, 以及由when引出的时间状语从句。如:He was cooking supper this time yesterday.(昨天
这个时候他正在做晚饭) The little girl was playing with her toy when I saw her.(我看到小女孩的时
候她正在玩玩具)
(3) 用于宾语从句或时间状语从句中,表 示与主句动作同时进行而且是延续时间较长。句子中通常不用
时间状语。如:She saw it happen when she was walking past.(她路过时看到事情的发生) They sang
a lot of songs while they were walking in the dark forest.(他们在黑暗的森林里走时唱了很多歌)
(4) 表示过去一个阶段频繁发生或反复进行的动作,常与always等频度副词连用,以表示赞扬 、不满或
讨厌等感情色彩。如:He was always borrowing money from me when he lived here.(他住在这里时
老向我借钱)
6. 现在完成时 表示一个发生在过去的、对现在仍有影响的动作,或表示开始在过去,并且一直延 续到
现在,甚至还可能延续下去的动作。
(1) “助动词have (has)+动词的过去分词”构成。
(2) 表示发生在过去的对现在仍有影响的动作时,时间状语有:already, yet, just, once, twice,ever,
never,three times, before等。如:I have never seen such fine pictures before. (我以前从来没有看过
这么好的画) He has just gone to England.(他刚去英国)
(3) 表示在过去开始一直延续到现在(可能延续下去)的动作或状态时,时间状语有:for (two years),since
1990, since (two weeks ago)和since引导的状语从句。如:I have been away from my hometown for
thirty years.(我离开家乡有30年了) Uncle Wang has worked in the factory since it opened.(自从这
家工厂开张,王叔叔一直在那儿工作)
(4) 口语中have got往往表示have(有)的意思。如:They have got thousands of books in their library.(他
们图书馆有上万本书)
(5) have gone to(“已经去了”)表示人不在这里,have been to(“去过”)表示人在这里。如:--Where is Mr Li?
–He has gone to the UK.(李先生在哪里?他去了英国。) --Do you know something about Beijing?
–Yes,I have been to Beijing three times. (你知道北京的情况吗?是的,我去过那里三次。)
(6) 在完成时中,一个瞬间性动词(一次性动作)不能与表示一段时间的状语连用,此时须将该瞬间 动词
改为延续性动词或状态动词。具体变化见下表:
瞬间性动词的完成时
have (already) gone to…
has

come to…
(had)

left…



arrived…



died



begun



ended



bought...



borrowed…



joined…
延续性动词或状态动词的完成时
have been in at … for (two years)
has been here since (1990)
(had) been away from…



been in…




been dead



been on



been over



had…



kept…



been in …


或者使用型:It is has been + (多久)+ since + 主语(人)+谓语(过去时)+…+过去时间状语
[注] 瞬间动词不能和表达一段时间的状语连用。如

How long may I keep the book?(这本书我能

18


初中英语语法
借多久?)(句子中keep取代了borrow)
7. 过去完成时 表示过去某一时间或某一动作发生之前已经完成的动作。 “过去的过去”。
(1) 过去完成时由“助动词had+动词的过去分词”构成。
(2) 过去完成时时间状语有:by (yesterday), by then, by the end of (last…)或者由when,before等引出状
语从句。有时句子中会有already, just, once, ever, never等词语,也会有for… 或since…构成的时
间状语。如:They had already finished cleaning the classroom when their teacher came.(当老师来
的时候他们已经打扫完了教室) The woman had left before he realized she was a cheat.(在他发觉
那个妇女是个骗子时她已经走掉了)
(3) 过去完成时常用于宾语 从句中、after引导的从句中,或者从句是before引导的主句中。如:After I
had put on my shoes and hat,I walked into the darkness.(我穿上鞋子戴上帽子走进了黑暗之中) He
said that he had never seen a kangaroo before.(他说他以前从来没有见过袋鼠)
8. 过去将来时 表示在过去预计将要发生的动作或存在的状态。
(1) 过去将来时由“助动词should(第一人称)或would(第二、三人称)+动词原形”构成。
(2) 过去将来时常用于宾语从句中,时间状语有:later, soon, the next (day).
(3) 在时间状语从句和条件状语从句中不可以使用过去将来时,而应该使用一般过去时。如:He
promised that he would pay me a lot if I helped him with the project.(他答应付给我许多钱如果我帮
助他搞那个项目) Every time when he was free,he would sit down and read some books.(每次只要他
有空他就会坐下来看看书)
(4) 表示纯粹的将来时用would或should,表示打算或主观认为的事情用waswere going to (+动词原
形)。如:She told me she would be 18 the next month.(她告诉我她下个月就18岁了) She told me
that she was going to have a walk with her pet dog.(她告诉我她打算带她的宠物狗去散步)
(5) 过去将来时还可以表示一个过去经常性的动作。如:When it rained in the day, he would bring an
umbrella with him.(白天下雨时他会随身带一把雨伞)
9. 现在完成进行时:指一个从过去就开始一直延续到 现在并有可能继续下去的动作,它具有现在完成
时和现在进行时双重特征,结构是:“havehas + been +动词的现在分词”。如:I have been swimming
in the cold water for about two hours.(我已经在冰冷的水里游了将近两个小时) How long have you
been waiting here?(你在这里一直等了多久?)
 被动语态:
1. 被动语态定义:用来说明主 语与谓语动词之间的关系。如果主语是动作的执行者,便叫主动语态;
如果主语是动作的承受者,便叫被 动语态。只有及物动词和一些相当于及物动词的词组才有被动语
态的形式。
2. 被动语态由“助动词be +动词的过去分词”构成。助动词be有时态、人称和数的变化。被动语态后
的by短语有时可省去。
3. 被动语态的用法:
(1) 不知道谁是动作的执行者时用被动语态,省略by短语。如:A man was killed in the accident.(一个
人死于事故) This window was broken yesterday.(这扇窗子是昨天被打破的)
(2) 不说或者众所周知是谁做时,用被动语态,省略by短语。如:Rice is also grown in this place.(这个地
方也种水稻) A railroad will be built here in three years.(三年之后这里将要修建一条铁路)
(3) 强调动作的承受者,句尾加by短语。如:It was written by Lu Xun.(它(书)是鲁迅写的) A pet dog is
never killed by its owner.(宠物狗是不会被主人宰杀的)

19


初中英语语法
4. 主动语态改写为被动语态注意点:
(1) “动词+间接宾语+直接宾语”改为被动时,可以用间接宾语做被动句的主语。如:His teacher gave
him a dictionary.→He was given a dictionary by his teacher.(老师给他一本字典→他得到老师一本
字典) 也可以用直接宾语做被动句的主语,但是需用to或者for引出原句的间接宾语。如:A
dictionary was given

to him by his teacher.(一本字典由老师送给了他)His father made him a

kite.→A kite was made for
him by his father.
...
(2) “动词+宾语+动词原形”改为被动时,动词原形前要加to.如:The boss made the poor man work 12
hours a day.→The poor man was made to
work 12 hours a day.
..
(3) “动词+…+介词”改为被动时,介词一般在原位不动。如:The girl takes good care of her little
..
brother.→The girl’s little brother is taken good care of
by her.
..
(4) “be+过去分词”未必表示被动语态,而可能是系表结构。
He is pleased worried tired …….(系表)(他高兴焦虑疲劳……)
He was hit knocked down told shot …….(被动)(他被击中撞倒关照射中……)
 动词的非谓语形式
1. 动词的非谓语 形式包括动词不定式、动名词和分词三种形式;其中分词又包含现在分词和过去分
词两种形式。它们在句 子中不能单独作谓语。
2. 动词不定式
(1) 基本形式由“不定式记号to+动词原形”构成。它的否定形式只要在“to” 前面加上“not”。它的疑问
形式是:“wh-疑问词+to+动词原形”。*它的被动形式:“to be +过去分词”。*它的完成形式:“to have
+过去分词”。
(2) 动词不 定式具有名词、形容词和副词的特征,即可以在句子中作主语、宾语、定语、状语、表语和
宾语补足语。 但不定式也保留动词的某些特征,即不定式后面可以跟宾语、表语和状语。动词不定
式加上相关成分就构 成不定式短语。
(3) 动词不定式可以放在谓语前句子作主语。但是通常将作主语的动词不定式或不 定式短语放在谓语
后面,而在主语位置用“it”作形式主语(有时在不定式的前面还会用for sb.表示不定式的逻辑主语)。
如:To help animals is helping people.(帮助动物就是帮助人) It is very difficult (for us) to learn
Chinese well.((对于我们而言)学好汉语是非常的困难) It took me half an hour to work out this
problem.(解出这道题花了我一个小时的时间)
(4) 动词不定式可以作谓语动词(及物动词)的宾语。
a) 及物动词+不定式一般形式:
谓语动词(vt.)
+不定式
作宾语
(无)
说明
want(想) try(试图) decide(决定) would
like(想要) hope(希望) love(喜爱) learn(学会)
afford(提供) agree(同意) fail(失败、未能)
mean(意味着) prefer(宁愿) wish(希望)
+ to (do)
help(帮助)
begin(开始) start(开始)hate(憎恨)
forget(忘记) remember(记得) like(总爱)
to可以省略
也可跟动名词,意义变化不大
也可跟动名词,意义变化较大
I would like to have a rest at the moment.(我现在想休息一下) They began to search the room for
the thief.(他们开始在屋子里搜寻小偷) He liked to have a swim in the pool near his house.(他喜

20


初中英语语法
爱在靠家的水塘里面游泳) When did you learn to speak English?(你什么时候开始学英语
的?) Don’t forget to close the door when you leave.(你离开时别忘了关门
[比较] He forgot to turn off the light.(他忘了关灯.) (没关) He forgot turning off the light.(他忘
记关过灯.)(关了) Please remember to ring me up.(记得给我打电话.)(还没打电话) I remember
calling you yesterday but you forgot.(我记得昨天给你打电话了,但是你忘记了.)(打过电话)
b) 及物动词+疑问词+不定式:
谓语动词(vt.)
tell (告诉) show (显示) know (知道) ask
+wh-疑问词+不定式 (作宾语)
what
说明
不定式疑问
形式还可以
作句子的主
语、表语等。
(问) find out (发现) understand (明白) where
wonder(疑惑) learn(学会) forget(忘记) + how + to (do)
remember(记得) teach sb.(教某人)
discuss(商讨)
who
which
He does not know which one to take.(他不知道该选哪个) Tell me how to get to the station.
She asked me what to do for today’s homework.(她问我今天家庭作业做什么) Can you teach
me how to search the internet?(你能教我怎样上网吗?)
c) 不定式作宾语而后面又有宾语补足语时,通常用it代替作形式宾语,而不定式则后置。I found it
not very easy to learn to ride a bike.(我发现学骑车不很容易)
(5) 动词不定式可以在句子中用作定语,放在名词或代词后面。
a) 记住下面的一些结构:
被修饰部分 + 不定式(作后置定语)
a key
a box
give her a book
Is there any (+名词代词)
It’s time
Do you have any work
I’d like something
I have nothing
Would you like something
to lock the door
to hold these things
to read
to (do)?
to go.
to do?
to eat.
to say.
to drink?
汉 语 意 思
锁门的钥匙
装这些东西的箱子
给她一本书读
有…要(做的)吗?
是走的时间了。 该走了。
你有工作要做吗?
我要点儿吃的。
我没有话要说。
你要点儿喝的吗?
b) 在这种情况下,如果不定式动词是不及物动词,则后面必须加介词。如:They could not find a
place to live in.(他们找不到住的地方) Please give me a chair to sit on.(请给我一张椅子坐坐)
He has got a writing brush to write with.(他找到了写字的毛笔)
(6) 动词不定式可以在句子中用作状语,有下列几种情况:
a) 放在不及物动词(come, go, stop, finish, wait等)后面。He came to see her yesterday.(他昨天来看
望她)(表示来的目的) I stopped to have a rest.(我停下来休息一会儿)(表示停下来的目的)
b) 放在完整的谓语之后(即“谓语+宾语”、“谓语+宾语+补语”、“动词+表语”之后)。如:We cleaned
the room to let him play in it.(我们打扫了房间以便让他在里面玩) I opened the window to see
more clearly.(我打开窗子以便看得更清楚点儿)
c) 有时表示目的的不定式短语可以放在句首。To arrive there on time,I got up one hour earlier
than usual.(为了按时到达,我们比平时早起了一个小时)(表示早起的目的)

21


初中英语语法
[注] stop to do 与stop doing:They stopped to have a look.(他们停下来看看)(不定式作“停下来”
的目的状语) They stopped looking out of the window and began to listen to the teahcher.(他
们停止向窗外望,开始听老师讲课)(动名词作宾语,表示“停止”的内容)
(7) 动词不定式可以在句子中用作表语,限用于连系动词之后。如:My job is to keep the goal.
(8) 动词不定式可以在句子中用作复合宾语中的宾语补足语。
谓 语 动 词(vt.)
ask(请) tell(关照) teach(教) want(想要) would
like(想要) get(让) help(帮) invite(邀请)
like(喜欢) warn(警告)
make(使得) let(让) hear(听) see(看) feel(感
觉) watch(观看) have(使得) help(帮助)
+ 宾语
(人 物)
+sb. sth.
+不定式
(作宾语补足语)
+to (do)
+sb. sth. + (do)
如:Mum asked me to help her with the cooking.(妈妈叫我帮助她做饭) I would like you to see my
parents.(我想要你见见我的父母) The boss often made the workers work 14 hours a day.(老板常
让工人们一天工作14小时) Now let me hear you play the violin.(现在让我来听你拉小提琴)
[注] help之后做宾补的不定式符号to可以省略;hear see feel watch之后的宾补用不定式与现在
分词时,含义不同,需特别注意,(参见现在分词部分)。
I heard her crying when I walked past.(我路过时听到她正在哭)(指当时瞬间的情况)
I sat near her and heard her sing the new song.(我坐在她附近听她唱新歌)(整个过程)
3. 动名词
(1) 动名词由动词原形加词尾“ing”构成。动名词有动词的特征,可以 跟宾语,可以被状语修饰;它也有
名词的特征,在句子中可以作主语、宾语(包括介词宾语)等。动名词 加相关词语(宾语或状语等)构
成动名词短语。
(2) 动名词可以作主语。一般可用it作形式主语而将动名词短语后移。如:Learning English all by
yourself is not so easy.=It is not so easy learning English all by yourself.
(3) 动名词可以作宾语。
a) want need之后用动名词时,含有被动意思。如:Your car needs reparing badly.(你的车急需修
理。)(被修)My hair needs cutting.(我要理发。)(头发被理)
b) remember forge stop finish之后用动名词时,与用不定式含义不同。如:I forgot to write a
letter to him.(我忘了给他写封信)(根本没写) I forgot writing a letter to him.(我忘了给他写过
信)(写了却忘了) They stopped to look back.(他们停下来向后看)(停下的目的是向后看) They
stopped looking back.(他们停止向后看)(不向后看了)
c) enjoy mind keep hate go等词一般用动名词作宾语。如:Do you mind my closing the
door?(把门关上你介意吗?) She hates travelling by air.(她讨厌坐飞机旅行) They went
swimming every afternoon.(他们每天下午去游泳) I enjoy walking around the town.(我喜欢在
镇上转悠)
d) like love start begin learn后面用动名词时,与用不定式意思相近或相同。如:We began to
study English when we were at primary school. We began studying English when we were at
primary school. (我们在小学时就开始学英语了)
(4) 动名词可以作表语,此时特别注意不要与现在进行时混淆。如:My job is putting these parts
together.(我的事情是把这些部件拼起来) I am putting these parts together.(我正在把这些部件拼
..

22


初中英语语法
起来)
(5) 动名词与现在分词构 成相同,但是含义不同,动名词主要表示事情,而现在分词则主要表示进行着的
动作。如:Eating too much is not good for your health. (动名词短语,作主语) Seeing is believing.(动
名词短语,分别作主语和表语) He ran after a moving bus and got onto it.(现在分词,作定语) His
father saw him sitting on some eggs.(现在分词,作宾补)
4. 分词
(1) 主要区别:现在分词一般有主动的意思或表示动作正在进行的意思;过去 分词有被动或动作已经
完成的意思。分词可以有自己的宾语或状语。
(2) 分词或分词短语在句子中作定语、状语和复合宾语等。
a) 作定语:分词作定语时,一般要放在修饰 的名词之前,分词短语作定语时,则要放在所修饰的名
词之后。I have got a running nose.(我流鼻涕) The woman running after the thief shouted very
loudly,“Stop the thief!”(跟着小偷追的妇女大喊:捉小偷!) Yesterday I met a man called Mr.
Black.(昨天我遇见了一个名叫布莱克先生的人) He only gave me a broken glass,so I was very
angry with him.(他只给了我一个坏玻璃杯,所以我很生他的气)
b) 可以作下列动词的宾语补足语。(参考不定式作宾语补足语)
谓语动词(vt.)
keep(保持) see(看到) hear(听到) watch(注意到) feel(感觉到)
宾语
.
宾补
(do)ing
Mum kept me working all the week.(妈妈让我一个星期都在工作) When I entered the room,I
saw Jack eating a big pear.(我进入房间时看到杰克正在吃一只大梨子) In the dark I felt
something very cold moving on my foot.(黑暗之中我感到有个冷的东西在我的脚上移动)
c) 可以作状语,表示伴随情况。如:She came into the classroom,holding a pile of papers in her
hand.(他走进教室,手上抓着一沓纸) I am very busy these days getting ready for the coming oral
test.(这些日子我正忙着准备即将来到的口语考试)
d) 可以作表语,放在连系动词后面,但要注意不要与被动语态混淆,“主系表”主要表示状态,而被动
语态 则表示动作。常用过去分词作表语的结构有:be worried (焦虑) be pleased (高兴) be tired
(疲劳) get dressed (打扮好) get lost (迷路) get caught (遭遇) beome frustrated (沮丧)
become intereted in (对…感兴趣)等等。例略。
e) 可以作宾语补足语。如:I had my hair cut this morning.(今天早上我让人给我理了发)(注意:
have sth. done表示动作由别人来做,而have done sth.则为现在完成时的结构,两个结构不可以
混淆)
 动词用法辨析:
(1) “Why not+动词原形+…?”(干嘛不……?)是简略句,完全形式是:Why don’t you +动词原形+…? Why
not go and have a look?(干嘛不去看看?) Why not try it once again?(为什么不再试试?)
(2) seem(好象):①. + seem + (to be+)形容词+…;②. + seem + like +…;③sbsth + seem +
to (do);④It seems that + 从句。如:He seemed (to be) very happy when he was called by the
headmaster. (被校长叫到名字时他好象很开心) It seems that nobody else could do such a foolish
thing except Jim. (除了吉姆好象没有什么人会做出如此愚蠢的事情来)
(3) be afraid(害怕):①be afraid of sth; be afraid of (doing); ②be afraid to (do); ③be afraid that+从句。
如:She is a little afraid of snakes.(她有点怕蛇) Don’t be so afraid to stay at home alone at night.(别
害怕晚上一个人在家) I’m afraid that somebody will take his place because of his serious

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初中英语语法
mistakes.(恐怕有人要取代他了,因为他犯了那么大的错误)
(4) be sorry(抱歉):①be sorry for (sth); ②be sorry for (doing sth); ③be sorry to (do); ④be sorry that+从
句。如:I am very sorry for keeping you waiting so long.(不好意思让你久等了)I am sorry to trouble
you.(对不起,麻烦你了) I am sorry (that) he isn’t here at the moment.(恐怕他现在不在)
(5) be sure (确信): ①be sure of (sth); ②be sure to(do); ③be sure that+从句。如:She told me many
times that she was sure to come.(她给我讲过多次她一定会来的) Are you sure of your
answer?Maybe it’s wrong.(你对你的答案有把握吗?也许是错的。) I am sure that Dad will help me
with the job.(我确信爸爸会帮着我做这件事情的)
(6) make 与do:一般情况下表示进行活动或者做工作用do,表示创造建构某事物用make. 如:I don’t
know what to do.(我不知道该干什么) I’m not going to do any work.(我不准备做什么) My father
and I once made a boat.(我和我爸曾经做过一只船)
(7) put on

wear

have…on

be in

try on

dress的用法:put on强调“穿、戴”这个 动作过程,wear
则表示“穿着、戴着”这一状态,have+衣物+on主要表示状态,be in(+颜色衣物)也是表示一个状
况,dress(+人)表示“给…人穿衣”。如:Please put on your new shoes. The twins are wearing the
same clothes. Today she has an overcoat on. Do you know the woman who is in black?
Dad is dressing Tom now.
[注]dress与wear或put on的区别:wear或put on常用衣物作宾语,而dress常用人作宾语。be
dressed in与wear基本同义。如:Could you dress the baby for me?(你能替我给宝宝穿衣吗?) He
is eight but can’t dress himself.(他八岁了,还不会穿衣服) She was dressed in a red coat.(她穿着一件
红上衣) Do I have to dress up to go to Jim’s party?(我得穿上好衣服去参加吉姆的聚会吗?)
(8) like

love与enjoy的用法:like和enjoy后面跟动名词,love 后 面一般跟动词不定式。like后面有
时跟动词不定式,表示一种习惯或嗜好(往往与具体的时间或地点 有关)。enjoy后面还可以加名词、
反身代词,表示“享受…乐趣;玩得开心”。如:Do you like shopping? He likes to have a swim when
he gets home every afternoon. They love to sing foreign songs. Did you enjoy yourself at
the party? He enjoys living in China.
(9) study

learn的用法: study主要表示“学习、研究”,指过程;而learn主要表示“学会”,指结果。
How many subjects do you study?(你学多少门课程?) Have you learned it yet?(这个你学过了
吗?) How long have you studiedlearned English?(你学英语多久了?)
(10) think

want

would like的用法:think指“思考、考虑”,want指“想要、愿望、企图”,would like
指“想要”,think后面一般跟介词短语或从句,want和would like后面跟名词或动词不定式。Do you
think that China will become a developed country in 40 years? (你认为中国会在40年后成为发达国
家吗?) I am thinking of the money I once lent to Li Min.((我正在想着以前借给黎敏的钱) What
do you really want to say?(你到底想干什么?) Which of these cakes would you like (to have)?(这些
饼子中你想吃哪些?)
(11) look for

search…for

find

find out:前面两个词语表示动作过程,后面两个表示结果,look for指
“寻找”不见的或丢失的 东西,但还没有找到;search…for…指“为找…而搜寻…”;find指“找到”了
东西;f ind out主要指“查明一个事实真相”。如:Hey, Monkey, what are you looking for in the
cupboard?(嘿,猴儿!你在厨子里面找什么呢?) Have you found the lost key to your car?(你找着丢
失的车钥匙了吗?) The soldiers were searching the room for the spy when they heard a loud
noise.(士兵们正在房间里面搜寻间谍突然间他们听到了衣声巨响) Let’s try to find out who broke

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初中英语语法
the window.(让我们查查谁把窗子打破了)
[注] find的几个结构:find . + adj.n.“发觉某人是…”,find it +adj. + to do…(或+宾语从句)“发
现(做……)如何”。如: His mother found her daughter a very clever girl.(他的母亲发现她的女儿是
个聪明的女孩)(名词作补语补足语) You can easily find it not good for your health to eat cold
food.(你很容易就会发现吃冷食对你的身体是不利的)
(12) listen to

hear:listen to指“听”这一过程,hear指“听到”这一结果。如:Are you listening to me,Jim?
Yes,I have heard your words.(吉姆,你在听我说吗?是的,你的话我全听见了)
(13) look
see

watch

read:look指放眼去“看”(不管是否看 得到),指“看”的过程;see指“看见”这一
结果,有时see还引申为“明白”;watch指专 注的看,含有“注视、监视”之义,后面常跟“电视、比赛”
等词;read限制为看书面材料,译为“ 看、阅读”,后面跟“书、报纸、杂志”等词。What are you looking
at?(你在看什么?) Please look at the blackboard. (请看黑板) Let me go to see the film, mum, will
you? (妈妈,让我去看电影吧,好吗?) He won’t feel well until he finishes watching the football
match. (要看完了足球赛他才会感觉好些) Reading gives us knowledge.(阅读给我们知识)
(14) hear

hear of

hear from: hear“听说”,后面可以跟名词、代词、从句表示听见的内容;hear of“听
说”,后面跟人,指对某人有耳闻但没有见过面;hear from“收到……的来信”,后 面加人;learn“听说、
得知”,后面跟从句,含义与hear相似。如:I hear Mr Green is coming to see us tonight. (我听说格林
先生今晚要来看望我们) Have you ever heard of the man who once went to the Himalaya
Mountains? (你是否听说过那个去过喜马拉雅山的人?) How often do you hear from your father?
(隔多久你收到你父亲的信?)
(15) speak

talk

say

tell: spea k“讲话、发言、演说”,是不及物动词,涉及人时要加介词to;speak
作及物动词时后面跟语言 名称;talk“谈话、闲谈”,是不及物动词,涉及人时用介词with、to等,涉及
事情时后面跟 介词about等;say 是及物动词,后面跟名词、代词、从句等,表示说的内容;tell是
及物 动词,后面首先要跟人,然后再跟从句或者介词短语等。Do you speak English? (你讲英语吗?)
Who spoke at the meeting? (谁在会上发了言?) Our teacher is talking to Lin Tao’s parent. (我们的
老师正在跟林涛的家长讲话) Can you say it in English? (你能用英语说出它吗?) Please tell me
something about the strange flying object. (请跟我讲讲那个奇怪的飞行物的事情吧)
(16) be able to(do)

can的用法:can是情态动词,有许 多含义,表示“可能、可以、会”等意思,只有现在
式can和过去式could两种形式;be able to表示能力上“会”,有多种时态形式,to后面跟动词原形,
有时可以与cancoul d互换。如:Can you speak English? (你会说英语吗?) He couldn’t(wasn’t able
to) swim when he was 12. (他十二岁时不会游泳)
(17) there be

have: have表示“拥有”,主语是人或物;there be表示“存在”,主语在there be之后。
How many chairs and desks are there in their classroom? There is none.
[注]there be doing与there be to do 有所不同:用doing表示一个正在发生的事情,而
用to do 则表示一个滞后或迟于there be的动作。如: Look! There is a dog lying on the stairway.
Take your time. There is nothing for you to do tonight.
(18) borrow

lend

keep: borrow“借进”、lend“ 出借”,都是一次性动作,不可以和表示一段的时间状
语连用;keep“保存”用来表示借一段时间。 如: I have lost the book I borrowed from my teacher.
What can I do? (我丢掉了从老师那里借来的书) How long have you kept my dictionary,eh?For
more than two months! (呃,我的字典你借了多久了?两个多月了!)
(19) br ing

take

carry

send
lift: bring指从远处“拿来”;take指从面前“拿走”;carry指一般的搬

25


初中英语语法
运,不涉及方向;send指“送、派遣、寄”;lift指由低向高“提起、拎起”。
(20) hope

wish: hope表达有把握或信心实现的事情,后面直接 跟动词不定式或宾语从句,不可以跟动
名词或作宾语补足语的不定式;wish表达实现的可能性不大的 事情,后面跟名词、宾语从句(用过
去时)或者作宾语补足语的不定式。如:We all hope to see him very soon. (我们全都希望尽快见到
他) I hope it will be fine tomorrow so that we can go out. (我希望明天天好,这样我们就能出去了。)
How I wish it was not raining at the moment!(我多么希望此刻不在下雨!)(事实上天正在下雨)
(21) spend的宾语通常是金钱或时间,句型:sb.+(spend)+时间金钱+on sth (in) doing sth;
take的主语通常是事情,句型: + (take)+sb.+时间+to do… 。(如果是动作则常用it作形式主
语将动词不定式后移); cost的宾语通常是时间、金钱、力气,句型:sth. +(cost)+sb.+时间金钱
力气; pay的宾语通常是金钱,句型:sb.+(pay)+金钱+for+事物. She spent the whole night reading
the novel. (她花了一个晚上看那本小说) This job will take me two days.=It will take me two days to
do the job. (做这件事情要花我两天的时间) How much does a house like this cost? (像这样的房子
要花多少钱?) I paid him twenty dollars for the book.
(22) begin在大多数情况下可以替代start,(反义词是end),后面接不定式或动名词时区别不大。 < br>start还可以表示“开始、出发、启动”,反义词是stop;某事停止后再重新开始一般用star t. When did
you beginstart to learn English? (你什么时候开始学英语的?) They started getting in the crops
after the rain stopped. (雨停后他们开始收割庄稼) This time he could not start his car. (这次他没
法启动他的汽车)
(23) arrive inat

reach

get to: arrive是不及物动词,到达具体地点加介词at,到达一个大的地方(国
家、城市)加介词in, arrive后面可以直接跟地点副词heretherehome等;get表示“到达”时是不
及物 动词,涉及地点(无论大小)时后面加to,get后面可以直接跟地点副词here等;reach是及物动< br>词,后面直接跟地点名词。如:He arrived in San Francisco last Sunday. (上个星期天他抵达旧金山)
How did you get there in the night? (你是怎样在夜间到达那里的?) We hurried all the way and
reached the station just five minutes before the train left. (我们一路狂奔在火车启动前5分钟到达车
站)
(24) be made of指从制成品中可以看得出原材料,而be made from则指从制成品中看不出原材料,口语
中都可以换成be made out of。 be made into表示“被制成……”,be made in表达被制造的地点,be
made by表达制造的人,be made for表达被制造的目的。如:This kind of paper is made from bamboo.)
The desk is made of wood and metal. A lot of paper has been made into paper birds. (许多纸被
折叠成了小鸟) Computers are made in these cities. This kite was made by Uncle Wang. A big
bag was made for me to hold my waste things.(一只大包做好了让我装废物)
(25) be used for + 名词代词或动名词, be used to + 动词原形,表示两个短语意思相近,表示“用于…”。
used to + 动词原形,表示“过去常常”,否定式可以是“didn’t use to”也可以是“usedn’t to”;getbe used
to + 动名词,表示“习惯于….”。如:A knife can be used for cutting things. A knife can be used to cut
things.(刀可以用来割东西) He used to borrow novels from the library when he was at school. (他上
学时常常在图书馆借书) He is used to getting up early in the morning. (他习惯早起)
(26) beat,win与lose: beat (打败),后面跟“人”,而win(赢得),后面跟“比赛、竞赛”等。如:Who won at last?
(最后谁赢了?) Class Three beat us 5-0. (三班以5∶0打败了我们) I am sure to win the match. (我
一定能赢得比赛) 而lose则表示“输了”,常用句型:lose sth. to sb. 如:Unluckily we lost the
match to Class Three. (不幸的是我们比赛输给了三班)

26


初中英语语法
(27) fall指东西由高处向下坠落,不及物动词;也可 以作连系动词,意思是“变得,进入某种状态”。drop
表示物体由高处往低处落下,不及物动词;或 让物体落向低处,及物动词。如:The man fell off the
tractor and hurt himself. (那个人从拖拉机上摔下来跌伤了) Soon after they touched the pillows
they fell (系动词) fast asleep. (他们头挨枕头不久就睡着了) He felt as if he had to drop maths.(他
觉得似乎要放弃数学) He dropped a letter into the mail-box.(他向邮箱里丢了一封信)
(28) join

join in

take part in: join多指参加组织、团体、党派等,后面跟人时表示和某人一起参加
某项活动;join in指参加某项游戏或活动;take part in多指参加群众性的活动、运动、会议等。
如:He joined the army in 2001. They joined me in congratulating you.(他们和我一起向你祝贺)
Do join us in the game.(千万参加我们的比赛) He took an active part in the students’ movement in
the 1940s.(在二十世纪40年代他积极参加学生运动)
(29) beat

h it

strike:beat指“连续不断地打击;(心脏的)跳动”;hit指“一次性地 撞击、命中”;strike
与hit基本同义,还可以理解为“划(火柴)、给……深刻的印象”。如 :The man looks dead,but his heart
is still beating weakly. (那个人看上去死了可心脏还在微弱地跳动) He hit the ball so hard that it
flew over their heads and fell into the lake. (他踢球的劲太大球飞过他们的头顶落入水中) He went
into the room and struck a match(火柴). (他走进房间划着了一根火柴)
(30) carry on表示“进行、继续”;carry out表示“进行、贯彻、实现”。如:I will carry on the work. (我
会继续工作) I have some difficulties in carrying out his orders. (对于执行他的命令我有问题)
(31) be amazed“感到惊讶”,指人对某个不可能发生却实际发生了的事情感到极其的讶异;
be surprised“感到吃惊”指人对突发的事件感到惊讶。如:When he dived deep into the sea, he was
amazed at the colours of all the beautiful coral reefs. (他深潜到海中时被所有美丽的珊瑚礁惊呆了)
He was very surprised when he heard a loud noise from inside the room. (听到房间里传出一个很
大的声音他非常地吃惊)
(32) “warn sb. ofabout sth”意思是“针对…而警告某人”;“warn sb (not) to do sth”意思是“告戒某人(不)
要做某事”;“warn sb. + that从句”意思是“警告某人说…”。如:They warned the passengers of thieves.
(他警告路人小心窃贼) I warn you that you will fail in the coming exams if you are still so lazy. (我
警告你:如果你还这么懒在即将来到的考试中你会不及格的。) He was warned not to go out in the
late night. (他受到警告不要在深夜出去)
(33) think of表示“考虑、思念、认为、想起、建议”等;“think about”表示“看待、认为”;“think much
highly a lot of”表示“高度评价…”;“think over”表示“仔细考虑”;“think out”表示“想出”。如:The
headmaster thought highly of this boy. (校长高度地评价了这个男孩) We’re thinking of going to
France for our holiday. (我们在考虑去法国度假的事情) Think it over and you will have a way. (仔
细考虑就有办法) I cannot think of his name. I forgot it. (我想不起他的名字我忘了)

What do
you think about his composition?

Very good! (他的作文你觉得怎么样? 很好。)
(34) “agree to+动词”表示“同意做某事”,“agree with + sb.观点”表示“赞同…的观点” agree about表示
“对…话题有相同看法”“agree to +建议”表示“同意”某人的建议,“agree on + 决定”表示“赞成某人
的决定”。例略。
(35) deserve(应该,应得)的用法:deserve后面可以加不定式,也可以加名词。如:They had tried their best
and they deserved to win. (他们尽力了该赢。) The little boy always made troubles around and
deserved beating. (小男孩总是处处惹麻烦活该被打) The girl did a good deed and deserved praise.
(女孩做了好事应该受到表扬)

27


初中英语语法
 九、连接词
1. 连词的含义:连接词与词、短语与短语、或引导从句的词。分为并列连接词和从属连接词两种。
(1) 并列连接词连接并列的词、短语、从句或句子。and(和),but(但是),or(或者,否则),nor( 也不), so(所
以), however(然而,无论如何),for(因为),still(可是),as well as(也),both..and...(...和...), not only ...but
also...(不但…而且…), either… or…(或…或…),neither… nor…等。
(2) 从属连接词用于引导从句,常见的从属连接词有:
when(当…时候), while(正当…时候), after(在…之后), before(在…之前), since(自从), until(直到),
althoughthough(虽然), if(假如), as(如…一样;由于), as …as…(和…一样), as far as(就…而言), as
long as(只要), as soon as(一…就…), even if(即使), because(因为), unless (除非), than(比…),
whether (是否…), in order that…(为了), so…that…(如此…以致), so that…(以便), now that…(现在
既然), by the time…(到…时候), every time…(每当), as if…(仿佛),no matter when(或whenever)(无
论何时),no matter where(或wherever)(无论在哪里)等。
2. 辨析
(1) becaus e

as

since

for的用法:because语 气最强,常表示必然的因果关系,从句一般放在主句后
面;回答why的问句只能用because. as语气比because弱,说明比较明显的原因。since(既然)表
示对方已经知道、无需加以 说明的原因或事实。for(因为)是并列连词,语气较弱,用来补充说明理
由或提供一种解释。如:H e is not at school today because he is seriously ill.(他今天没有上学因为
他病得厉害) As all of you have got here, now, let’s go to the zoo.(既然大伙儿都到了我们就去动
物园吧) I will ask Lin Tao to go with me since you are very busy.(既然你很忙我就叫林涛和我一
起去吧) We must be off now for the match starts at 7

00.(我们得走了因为比赛在七点开始)
(2) if

whether的区别:下列情况只能用不能用if:①引导主语从句 ,②引导表语从句,③引
...
whether
............
导 从句作介词宾语,④引导不定式短语,⑤引导让步状语从句。如:Whether it is a fine day next
Sunday is still a question.(下个星期天是不是个好天还是个问题)(引导主语从句) Please ask him
whether to go there with a raincoat or not.(请问一下带不带雨衣去那儿)(作动词的宾语) Hainan
is the place to be, whether it’s summer or winter.(海南是个该去的地方无论冬夏)(引导让步状语从
句) Please let me know whether you need my help(请告诉我你是否需要我的帮助).(引导宾语从句)
(3) while

when

as的用法区别:while常表示一个较长的动作,它引导的从句动作与主句的 动作是同
时发生的、是平行的;when可以表示较短的动作也可以表示较长的动作,主句和从句的动作 可以
同时发生也可以先后发生;as与上两词同义,可替换while和when, 表示主句和从句的动作同时发
生,常译为“一边……一边……”。如:Please do not trouble me while I am writing my homework.(我
写作业时请不要打扰我) I’ll go home when I have finished my job.(我干完了活儿就回去) They
were running quickly across the road when they heard the sound of a truck coming.(他们正快速地
穿过马路忽然听到了卡车开来的声音) As we walked in the dark street, we sang songs and talked
loudly.(当我们在黑洞洞的街上走路时我们高声地唱歌说话)
(4) tillun til与not…tilluntil的区别:前者表示一个延续性的动作,后者表示一个才开始的动作。如:< br>I will stay here and watch the baby until you return.(我会呆在这里看着娃娃直到你回来)(stay这
个动作一直进行到你return) They won’t go on working until they get what they think is reasonable.
(他们要到获得了他们认为合理的东西时才会继续干下去的)
(5) prefer to…rather than…后面都是用动词原形,prefer…to…都是用动名词或名词。
I prefer English to Japanese.(与日语相比我更喜欢英语) I prefer to learn English rather than

28


初中英语语法
learn Japanese. (与日语相比我更喜欢学英语)
 十、简单句
1. 简单句通常只由一个主语(或并列主 语)和一个谓语(或并列谓语)构成。一般分为陈述句、疑问句、
感叹句和祈使句四种。
2. 陈述句:用来说明一个事实的句子叫陈述句。肯定式和否定式两种形式。
(1) 陈述句的肯定式:The new play was good enough and everybody enjoyed it.
(2) 陈述句的否定式:
a) be

助动词、情态动词,后面加“not”。
b) 其他动词前面加do not(don’t).
c) 如果“have”作“有”讲,也可以在它后面加not构成否定式,其形式与have got的否定式相同。 如:
I haven’t (got) any brothers or sisters.(我没有兄弟姐妹)
[注]
a) 句子中如果有all

both

very muchwell等词时,用n ot一般构成部分否定,如果要完全否定,则
通常使用none

neither
not…at all等;All of them went there.→None of them went there.
b) 句子中含有little

few

too(太)、hardly

never

neither< br>、
nor

seldom等词时, 则视为否定句。
如:Few people live there because life there is very hard.
c) 陈述句在口语中可以直接表示疑问,表示惊讶或明知故问。如:That’s your boss?
d) 所有的从句一律使用陈述句语序,即在连接词后采用“主语+谓语+其他”的顺序。如:The old
man told me that he would live here for ten more years before he returns home. (老人告诉我说
他还要在这儿住几年然后回家) Could you tell me who you saw at the party last night?(能告诉
我在聚会上你都看见了谁吗?)
3. 疑问句:
(1) 一般疑问句: 用“yes”或“no”来回答的疑问句叫做一般疑问句。
a) 一般疑问句构成:谓语动词是to be

助动词、情态动词时,将它们(提前)放到主语前面。
b) 谓语动词如果没有上述词语而是其他动词时,则在主语前面加助动词do does did, 原来的谓
语动词改为原形。如:Do you get up at six every morning? Does she study hard?
c) [注] 回答must或者may开头的疑问句要小心,参见情态动词有关内容。
d) 一般疑问句的否定结构 表示惊奇、责怪、建议、看法等,只要将“not”置于主语之后,或将“not”
放到主语之前与be , have等助动词或情态动词合并在一起就可以了。如:Will he not come?(他
难道不来吗?) Isn’t your sister a Party member?(你的姐姐不是党员吗?) Haven’t you any
brothers?(你没有哥哥吗?) Don’t you like the play?(你难道不喜欢这个话剧吗?) Can’t we
walk a little farther?(我们不能走远些吗?) Won’t you sit down?(你不想坐下吗?) Hasn’t
she heard of the matter?(她没听说过这事儿?)
否定结构的疑问句,如果回答是肯定的,就用“yes+肯定结构”;如果回答是否定的,就用“no+否定结构”。(情况与反意问句类似。)如:
Can’t he answer the question? (他不能回答这个问题吗?)
—Yes,he can.(不,他能回答这个问题。) —No,he can’t. (是的,他不能回答这个问题。)
(2) 特殊疑问句:要求具体回答的问句。
a) 特殊疑问句结构是:
疑问代词

+一般疑问句+?
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初中英语语法
除who以外的疑问代词短语
疑问副词
[注] “who”引出的询问主语或主语部分相关词的特殊疑问句的结构与陈述句词序相同:如:
Who is dancing over there?(谁在那边跳舞?) 有时“what”,“which”,“wh ose”也可以引出与
陈述句词序相同的特殊疑问句。如:What is on the wall? Which is yours? Whose book is in
your bag? [注]从陈述句改为特殊问句时,先将句子改为一般问句,再将(划线)提问部分更改为疑问词置于
句首,特别要注意助动词的使用!如果只对主语或主语的修饰词提问,那么只需要将疑问部分改
为疑问词 即可。
b) 常用疑问代词和疑问副词:疑问代词: who, whom, whose, which, what,
疑问副词: when, where, why, how,
how构成的短语:how many (多少个) (独立用;或跟可数名词), how much (多少) (独立用;或
跟不可数名词), how old (多大年纪), how far (多远), how often (多常),how long (多久,多长),
how soon (多久以后),how many times (多少次),等等。
c) 特殊疑问句有时也用否定式。如:Why don’t you ask Jim instead?(常缩略为Why not…?) (你为
什么不转请Jim呢?)
d) 特殊疑问句疑问部分有时可有两个以上的疑问词。如:When and where were you born?
e) 疑问词如果是介词的宾语,则该介词可以在句首,也可以在句尾。如:What do you want a
computer for? = For what do you want a computer? (你干嘛要一台电脑呢?)
(3) 反意疑问句:表示对陈述句所说的事实提出相反的疑问,用“yes”或“no”来进行回答。
a) 构成:前一部分是陈述句,后一部分是疑问句;反意疑问句的回答有时会和汉语不同。
陈述句部分
肯定陈述句
否定陈述句
附加问句部分
否定的简短一般问句
肯定的简短一般问句
注 意 点
当陈述句部分含有“是”动词、(“有”动< br>词)、情态动词和助动词时,简短问句中沿
用该词;否则就使用dodoesdid.
He is old, isn’t he? (他老了不是吗?) The man went away, didn’t he? (那个男人走开了不是
吗?) He isn’t old, is he? (他不老是吗?) He never went there, did he? (他从没有去过那里是
吗?)
b) 回答:无论哪种形式的反意问句,回答时要遵循:“Yes,+肯定式”或者“No,+否定式”
The man went away, didn’t he?(那人走开了,不是吗?)
——Yes, he did.(是的,他走了。) No, he didn’t.(不,他没有走。)
The man never went there, did he?(这人从来不去那里,是吗?)
——Yes, he did.(不是呀,他去的。) No, he didn’t.(是呀,他不去。)
(4) 选择疑问句:提出两种或两种以上情况,需要对方作出选择回答的疑问句叫选择疑问句。
a) 构成:一般疑问句 + or + 第二选项?
特殊疑问句 + 第一选项(+ 第二选项)+ or + 第三选项?
b) 选择疑问句的结构与特殊疑问句相同,即要具体回答,不可以用yes no回答。如:
Is your friend a boy or a girl? –A girl. (----你的朋友是男孩还是女孩?----是女孩。) Which do
you prefer, coffee or tea? –Tea, please. (---你要哪一样咖啡还是茶?----请来茶吧。) Which do
you like best, singing, dancing or skating? --Dancing, of course. (----唱歌、跳舞和溜冰你最喜欢
哪样?----当然是跳舞啦!)

30


初中英语语法
4. 祈使句:祈使句用来表示请求、命令等。它的主语you往往不说出。
(1) 祈使句的肯定式: 动词(原形) + 其他 Please give me a hand. (请帮忙) Shut up! (住嘴!)
(2) 祈使句的否定式:Don’t +动词原形 + 其他 Please don’t talk in low voices. (请不要低声讲话。)
Don’t look back! (不要掉头看。)
[注] 以“let’s”引出的祈使句的否定结构,“not”应放在“let’s”后面。如:Let’s not trouble him.
肯定祈使句前可以用助动词来强调语气。如:Please do help me! (请千万帮帮我。)
5. 感叹句:感叹句用来表示喜怒哀乐等强烈感情。句末常用“!”
(1) 对含有形容词的名词短语感叹的结构通常是:What + (a an) + (形容词) +名词+ 陈述句结构(主谓
语) ,用来强调句子中的名词,如:What a good, kind girl (she is)! (她是多么善良的好女孩!) What
bad weather (it is)! (天气真糟糕!)
(2) 仅对形容词或副词进行感叹的结构通常是:How + 形容词副词 + 陈述句结构(主谓语) ,用来强调
句子中的形容词、副词或动词。How carefully the old man walks! (这老人走路真小心!) How
delicious the food is! (这食品真好吃!) How beautiful! (真美呀!)
(3) 有时,陈述句、祈使句、疑问句、一个词或词组,也带 有一定的感情色彩,也可以成为感叹句,此时未
必使用感叹句型。He is sitting on a tiger’s back! (他坐在老虎的背上!) A nice shot! (漂亮一击!)
Good goal! (好球!)
 十一、句子成分:主语、谓语、宾语、表语、定语、宾语补足语和状语
1. 主语
(1) 由名词、代词(人称代词用主格)、动词不定式、动名词等充当,说明动作是“谁”发出的。
(2) 动词不定式或动名词做主语时可用it代替,而不定式或动名词移至表语或宾语之后。如:It is very
comfortable to have a Class A seat during the long journey. (在长途旅行中能有个甲等座位简直太
舒服了。) Eating too much is bad for your health.(=It is bad for your health eating too much.) (吃得
太多对你的身体不利。)
(3) 口语中常见主语或“主--系”省略:(It is) nothing. ((那)没有什么。) (It) doesn’t matter. ((那)没有关
系。) (I) thank you. ((我)谢谢你。)
(4) 反意问句的附加问句,主语必须是代词:The man looks worried,doesn’t he? (这个人看上去很着急
不是吗?) Tigers are dangerous animals, aren’t they?
(5) 祈使句一般省略主语。加主语时往往用来指定某个人。Keep the keyboards clean, children. (省略了
主语) You go there and fetch me a glass of water. (你去给我弄一杯水来。)
(6) 主语与谓语必须保持单、复数的一致, 而谓语与表语或宾语之间没有这一要求。Neither Jim nor
Rose has passed the exam. (Jim和Rose都没有通过考试。) The Chinese people are a hardworking
and brave people. (中华民族是一个勤劳勇敢的民族。)
(7) 主语可以由从句充当,详见“主语从句”。
2. 谓语:
(1) 由“不及物动词”、“及物动词+宾语”或“系动词+表语”等构成, 说明主语所表示的人物“干什么”或
“怎么样”。如:He travelled in space for the first time.(他首次在太空旅行。) Who teaches you
English this year?(今年谁教你们的英语?) The pizza has gone bad. (那块烤馅饼已经变坏。)
(2) 谓语动词必须反映出人称、单复数、时态 等信息,谓语动词往往由下列词语依序排列构成:[情态
动词]+[时态助动词]+[语态助动词]+[ 主要动词](不一定全部出现)。记住:谓语部分第
一个动词往往是变形动词。如:I am sorry I am making so much noise but I have to. (对不起我发出

31


初中英语语法
了太大的声音但是只能这样。) He can’t have finished reading the 800-page-long novel. (他不可
能读完了那本长达800页的小说。) Something must be done to stop the fowl flu from spreading out.
(该采取措施防止禽流感蔓延。)
(3) 谓语动词切忌用“行为动词
1
+ 原形动词”、“be + 原形动词”。记住下列正确形式:
a) 情态动词+原形动词。You’d better go over the lesson.(你最好复习这一课。)
b) shall will would+原形动词。They should have been there once.(他们应该去过那儿。)
c) be+现在分词或者过去分词。如:What are you doing this evening?.
d) have+过去分词。如:Many trees have been cut down since 1970s. (自从20世纪70年代大批
树木被砍伐。)
e) 一般时问句和否定句中:dodoesdid+原形动词。He does not enjoy himself very much.(他日子
过的不好。) Did any of you see dinosaur eggs?(你们当中有谁见过恐龙蛋吗?)
f) 行为动词
1
+行为动词
2
(不定式、动名词、现在分词、过去分词等形式)。如:He made up his mind
to be a vet.(他拿定主意要做个兽医。) Feeling good about yourself is essential to feeling good
about life.(自尊自爱是享受生活的根本。) They wake up the other family members,
calling,“Merry Christmas!”(他们叫醒家庭的其他成员,呼喊着:圣诞快乐!) The kings of
ancient Egypt had strong tombs built for themselves.(古代的埃及国王让人给他们自己修建坚固
的坟墓。)
(4) 不可用形容词、名词、代词、副词、介词短语等独立作谓语,必须在此之前加连系动词。
(5) 主语、谓语单复数必须保持一致。Air and water is necessary to us all.(空气和水对于我们大家是必
不可少的。)
(6) 一般问句和反意问句的回答不使 用行为动词,应该使用“是”动词、情态动词、助动词(be,will,have,do
及变形)。T he Olympic Games is held every other year, isn’t it? ---Yes, it is.
3. 宾语:
(1) 由名词、代词(人称代词要 用宾格)、不定式、动名词、(宾语)从句充当,表示动作的承受者是“谁”
或者是“何物”。The angel also came to Joseph and told him the same thing.(那个天使同样来到约瑟
夫面前并且告诉他同样的事情。)(代词和名词充当两个宾语) He told me that the company could
not afford to pay him so much money.(他告诉我说公司付不起他那么多的钱。)(不定式作宾语)
They enjoy watching football games so much that they often forget their lessons.(他们如此喜爱看足球
以至于常常忘记了他们的功课。)(动名词作宾语) I think to be a children’s doctor is very
rewarding.(我认为当个儿童医生是很值得的。)(从句作宾语)
(2) 只有 及物动词或介词才有宾语,不及物动词没有宾语,如果涉及到事物,则必须在不及物动词后面加
合适的介 词。Listen to the radio. (listen不是及物动词,故加to。) Can you hear anything exciting?(你
能听到什么令人兴奋的消息吗?)
(3) 宾语一般放在及物动词或介词的后面,但是在疑问句中,如果宾语是疑问词,则宾语要放在句首 。介
词的宾语如果是疑问词,则可以放在介词后或句首。如:What did he see? What does he write a
letter with? With what does he write a letter? (他用什么写的信?)
(4) “动词+副词+宾语”结构中,如果宾语是代词,则代词必须放在“动”“副”之间。如:Please put the shoes
away. (请把鞋子收起来。) Please put away the shoes. (请把鞋子收起来。) Please put them away.
(请把它们收起来。)
(5) 动词后面跟双宾语时可以采用两种结构:

32


初中英语语法
a) 动词+间接宾语(人)+直接宾语(物)。如:He often gives me some help. (他常常帮我。)
b) 动词+直接宾语+介词+间接宾语。一般情况介词用to,但动词是make, buy, borrow时,介词用for.
如: Please make me a kite. (请给我做个风筝。)或Please make a kite for me.
(6) 在“动词 +宾语+宾补”结构中,如果宾语是不定式、动名词、宾语从句,则常用it做形式宾语,而将实
际的宾 语移到补语后面去。如:I found the job rather difficult. (我发觉这个工作相当难做。) I
found it rather difficult to do the job.
(7) 宾语可以由从句充当,详见“宾语从句”。
4. 表语:
(1) 说明主语的身份、性质、状况等含义的成分,通常由形容词、副词、介词短语、名词、代词等充 当。
如:He became a doctor after he left high school. The rubber wheels are over there.(橡胶轮子在
那边。) He does not feel like eating anything today because he has caught a bad cold.(他今天不想吃
任何东西因为他得了重感冒。) Who is it?(谁呀?)
(2) 表语只能放在系动词(be,look,become,turn get,grow,feel,seem) 之后,对表语进行提问的句子除外。
(3) 代词做表语一般用主格,口语中常用宾。如:It’s I. (It’s me.)是我。
(4) 只能作表语的形容词有:sorry,afraid,alone,asleep,awake,ill,wel l,sure,interested等等。He was terribly
sorry for his carelessness.(他很为他的粗心而歉疚。) Please make no noise here; the baby is
asleep.(请不要发出响动,婴儿正熟睡呢。) I am only interested in sitting in a boat and doing nothing
at all!(我只是对独坐孤舟无所事事感兴趣。) I am not alone in thinking so.(并非只有我才这样想
的。)
(5) 表语也可以由从句充当,详见“表语从句”。
5. 定语:
(1) 修饰名词或代词的成分,形容词、名词(含所有格)、代词(物主、指 示、疑问、不定)、介词短语、
不定式(短语)、定语从句。如:Put it in the top drawer.(把它放在最上层的抽屉里。) France and
Switzerland are European countries. (法国和瑞士是欧洲国家。) His mother and father are both
college teachers.(他的父母都是大学教师。) This is the day that I can never forget in my life.(这是
我一辈子难忘的日子。)
(2) 单词做定语时一般放在被修饰的名词前面,而且有一定的次序:
冠词
物代
a
the
my
his

年龄形状
大小温度
old,young,…
long,short,
round, square…
big, large,
small, little…
hot, cold,
warm, cool…
色彩
red,
yellow,
blue,

来源
Chinese,
English,
American,

质地
材料
wooden,
woolen,
glass,
silk,
paper

目的
用途
meeting,
tennis,
sports,
reading,
swimming,

被修饰的名
词(中心词)
box,
shoes,
room,
pig

(3) 时间副词(now,then,today,yesterda y,...)、地点副词(here,there,back,in,out,home,...作定语时放在被 修
饰的名词后面。如:I could not find my way out, so I stayed there all along. (我找不到出去的路,所
以就一直呆在那儿。)
(4) 介词短语修饰名词时只能放在名词的后面:The monkey in the cage was caught yesterday. (笼子里
的猴子是昨天逮着的。)

33


初中英语语法
(5) 形容词修饰复合不定代词时,往往后置。如:He remembered everything unusual. (他记得所有不寻
常的事情。)
(6) 定语还可以用从句充当,详见 定语从句。
[注]:定语属于修饰性的成分,因此它常归入主语、宾语、表语之中,不作为句子的主要成分。
6. 状语:
(1) 说明动作“何时”、“何地”、“如何”发生,或者说明形容词或副词 的程度,一般由副词、介词短语、不
定式、状语从句等充当。I was not born yesterday(我又不是昨天才出世的娃娃。.) For many of these
families a college education was something new.(对其中的许多家庭来说,大学教育是件新事物。)
He woke up to find his house on fire.(他醒来发现房子着火了。) You cannot leave until your work is
finished.(在你的工作被完成以前你不能离开)
(2) 副词作状语位置较为灵活。
(3) 多个状语相连时,一般先单词、后短语,先地点、后时间,先小概念、后大概念。如:He went ouf of
the room at a quarter to 23:00 last night and then disappeared into the dark.(他昨夜22点3刻从房间
里出来,然后消失在黑暗之中。)
(4) 状语还可以用从句来充当。
[注]:由于状语属于修饰性的成分,常归入谓语,因此不作为句子的主要成分。
7. 宾语补足语:
(1) 补充说明宾语的动作、状态的成分为宾语补足语,常由名词、形容词、动词非谓语形式(不定式 、
现在分词、过去分词等)、介词短语等充当。如:Call him Jim, please. (请叫他Jim。) I tried my
best to make him happy. (我竭尽所能让他开心。) Ask her to come to dinner tomorrow. (请他明天
来。) He let the smaller animals bring food to him. (他让小动物们给他带食物来。)
(2) 部分表示位置、方向的副词也可以作宾语补足语。如:Let him in, I tell you! (我跟你说,让他进来!)
Please put it away. (请把它收起来。)
 十二、简单句五种基本句型:
1. 句子包含主要句子成分(主语、谓语)和次要句子成 分(表语、宾语、宾语补足语),按照动词的性质
将英语简单句划分为以下五种基本句型:
2. 基本句型的词序:主谓:S-V
i


主系表:S-V
link
-P 主谓宾:S-V
t.
-O
主谓双宾:S-V
t
-O
间宾
-O
直宾

主谓宾补句型:S-V
t
-O-C
Jim is working [very hard] [now].(他现在正非常努力地工作。)
She is young. (她年轻。) It looks like rain. (天看上去要下雨。)
The boy [always] kicked the dog [with his feet]. (这男孩老是用脚踢那只狗。)
He has [never] bought me a toy [since last year]. (从去年起他没给我买过一个玩具。)
He felt something (cold) .(他感到有个冰冷的东西顺着腿上爬。)
 十三、并列复合句
1. 基本概念:并列复合句是由两个或两个以上并列而又独立的简单句构成。
2. 常见的并列句:
(1) 用来连接两个并列概念的连接词有and , not only…but also…, n either…nor…等,and所连接的前
后分句往往表示先后关系、递进关系。前后分句的时态往 往保持一致关系,若第一个分句是祈使
句,那么第二个分句用将来时。

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初中英语语法
(2) 表示在两者之间选择一个, 常用的连接词有or,otherwise,or else,either…or…等,前后分句的时态
往往保持一致关系,若第一个分句是祈使句,那么第二个分句用将来时。
(3) 表明两个概念彼此有矛盾、相反或者转折, 常用的连接词有but,yet,still ,however等,前后分句时
态一致。
(4) 说明原因, 用连接词for ,前后分句时态一致。
(5) 表示结果,用连接词so, 前后分句时态一致。
 十四、主从复合句
1. 概念:主从复合句由一个主句和一个或一个以上的从句构成。主句为句子的主 体,从句只用作句子
的一个次要成分,通常由关联词引导,并由关联词将从句和主句联系在一起。如:W hile the
grandparents love the children, they are strict with them.(爷爷奶奶们很爱孩子,同时对他们也严格要
求。) It seemed as if the meeting would never end.(看起来会议没完没了。) Hurry up, or (else) you'll
be late.(快点, 要不然就来不及了。) However I cook eggs, the child still refuses to eat them.(不管我
用什么方法煮鸡蛋,小孩还是不肯吃。)
2. 分类:分为主语从句、表语从句、宾语从句、定语从句和状语从句等。
(1) 表语从句:在句子中作连系动词的表语的从句,它位于主句中的系动词之后。
That is why he did not come to school yesterday. It is because you are so clever.
(2) 宾语从句:在句子中作及物动词或介词的宾语。
a) 基本形式:(主句+)连词+从句主语+从句谓语+...
b) 关于宾语从句连词的选择:
若从句来源于一个陈述句,那么,连词用that,在口语中that可以省略;
若从句来源于一个一般疑问句,连词则用if 或whether;
若从句来源于一个特殊疑问句,则连词就是疑问词(如what,who,where,when等)
They believe that the computer will finally take the place of human beings.(他们相信计算机终将
代替人类。) (从句本来就是陈述句) I wonder whether I should say something for him to the
headmaster. (我不知道是不是该为他在校长跟前说点什么。) (从句来源于一般问句Shall I say
something for him to the headmaster?) He asked me where he could get such medicine. (他问我
在哪儿能搞到那样的药。) (从句来源于特殊问句Where can he get such medicine? )
c) 宾语从句的时态问题:如果主句是现在时, 从句则用现在某一时态,甚至可以用过去时;如主句
是过去时,从句则相应地使用过去某一时态,遇到客 观真理时仍然用现在时。
I think I will do better in English this term. (我想本学期我的英语会学得好点。)
The teacher asked the boy if the earth is round. (老师问那个男孩地球是不是圆的。)
d) 下列结构后面的从句一般也作宾语从句看待:be sorry afraid sure glad +that从句,
I’m sorry I’m late. I’m afraid he isn’t in at the moment. (恐怕他此刻不在家。)
(3) 状语从句:在复合句中作状语,其位置可以在主句 前或主句后。状语从句可以分为时间、地点、原
因、目的、结果、比较、让步、条件等几种。状语从句由 从属连接词引导。
a) 时间状语从句通常由when ,as ,while, after, before, since, as soon as ,since, till (until), while,
whenever 等引导。一般放在句首或句尾,特别注意时间状语从句不允许使用将来时,而应该用
现在时替代。如: When you finish the work, you may go out to play with Sam. (你完成工作就
可以出去和Jim一起玩了。) I won’t leave until Mum comes back. (妈妈回来了我才会走。)
b) 地点状语从句通常由 where, wherever等引导。如:Go back where you came from! (哪里来还

35


初中英语语法
滚到哪里去!) I will never forget to catch the thief who stole my necklace wherever he may be.
(我永远也不会忘记去抓住那个偷我项链的贼,无论他会在哪里。)
c) 原因状语从句通常由because, since, as等引导,一般放在句首或句尾。如:He went abroad
because his father had found a good university for him. (他出国了,因为他父亲给他找了一所好
大学。)
d) 目的状语从句通常由so that..., so...hat..., in order that... 等引导,往往放在句尾,从句中通常含有
can could may might等情态动词。如:He got up earlier so that he could catch the first train.
(他起身更早为的是赶上第一班车。)
e) 结果状语从句通常由 so that..., so...that... 等引导,放在句尾。结果状语从句一般表示已经发生
的事情,故多为过去时态。如:He lost so many bikes that he decided never to buy a new one. (他
丢了那么多辆自行车,他决定再也不买新车了。)
f) 比较状语从句通常由as, than, as (so)...as等引导,一般省略从句的谓语部分,只剩下 名词或代词
(用主格或宾格均可)。如:Jane is much taller than Ime. (Jane比我高多了。) I don’t have as
many books as you (do). (我书没有你多)
g) 让步状语从句通常由though (although), as, even if( even though), however, whatever等引导。
如:Even if you pay the debt(债务) for me, I will not thank you because it has nothing to do with
me. (即使你替我还了债我也不会感谢你,因为它与我毫无关系。) He wears a T-shirt though it
is very cold. (他穿了一件T恤衫,尽管天很冷。)
h) 条件状语从句通常由if, unless, as long as等引导,条件状语从句一般放在句首或句尾,特别注意,
时间状语从句不允许使用将来时 ,而应该用现在时替代。You will certainly fail in the coming
final exams unless you work much harder. (即将来到的期末考试你肯定考不及格,除非你更用
功。) If it doesn’ t rain tomorrow, we shall go hiking. (如果明天不下雨我们就要去徒步旅行。)
[注]: because与so;(al)though与but;if与so不可以同在一个句子中成对出现。
时间、条件、原因,让步状语从句放在句首时需要用逗号与主句隔开。
(4) 定语从句:在复合句中作定语用修饰句子中某一名词或代词的从句叫定语从句。
a) 定语从句的位置:放在名词或代词的后面。如:The man who has an umbrella in his hand is my
uncle. (
手上抓了一把雨伞的
人是我的叔叔。)
b) 语法术语的改变:被修饰的名词或代 词称为先行词;引导定语从句的连接词称为关系词,其中
that

which

who称为关系代词,where

when

how称为关系 副词。
关系代词who

whom 和whose指人,分别在从句中作主语、宾语和定语。which指物that多
指物, 有时也指人,它们在从句中可以作主语或宾语。定语从句中关系代词作从句宾语时可以
省略。This is the thief (thatwhowhom) we have been looking for these days. (这个就是我们近日
一直在找的小偷。) Please find a room which is big enough for all of us to live in. (请找一间足
够大能住下我们全体的房间。)
关系副词when或whe re引导定语从句时,它们在从句中分别作时间状语和地点状语。如:This
is the room where they had a quarrel a week ago. (这是一个星期前他们吵架的房间。) I can
never forget the day when I first saw you. (我永远不会忘记第一次见到你的日子。)
c) 限制性定语从句在句中不能省略,否则主句意思就不完整。非限制性定语从句和主句之间往往用逗号分开,这种从句是一种附加说明,如果从句子中省去,也不致于影响主句的意思。如:She
spent the whole evening talking about her latest book, which none of us had heard of. (她一个晚

36


初中英语语法
上都在谈论她最近的书,我们一个人都没有听说过那本书。)
[注]:
a) 关系代词只能用that的情况:当先行词是指事物的不定代词(all, anything等),或先行词部 分
含有最高级,或含有序数词时,不能用其他的关系代词,只能用that. All that Lily told me seems
untrue. (Lily告诉我的话似乎不真实。) Can you give me anything that has no sugar inside?
(能不能给我点里面没有糖的东西?) This is the first two-story bus that runs in our city. (这
是第一辆运行于我市的双层公交车。)
b) 关系代词在从句中作主语时一般用who(指人)、that(指物),而不用that指人或用 which指物。
如:Do you know the woman who is weeping in the corner? (你认识那个在角落里哭泣的女人
吗?) Do not tell me any words that have nothing to do with me. (跟我无关的话,请一个字也
不要说。)
c) 关系代词作从句的宾语时,常用wh ich或whom,较少使用that或who,而且,关系代词常常省
略。如:Tom’s father was the first parent whom our teacher talked to. (Tom的父亲是我们老师
第一个谈话的人。)
d) 当关系代词 紧跟在介词后面时,必须用which或whom,而当介词移到句尾时,则又可以使用
that或wh o. 如:This is the room in which Miss Li once lived. (= This is the room Miss Li
once lived in.) (这是李小姐曾经居住过的房间。)
(5) 主语从句:在句子中充当句子主语的从句叫主语从句。位 于谓语动词之前。通常由that,whether
以及疑问连词引导。一般情况下,常用it替代主语 从句,而将主语从句移到句尾。如:When we should
start is still a question. (我们该在什么时候开始还是个问题呢。)
 十五、直接引语和间接引语
在陈述句中,直接引用说话人原来的语句,称为直接引语。在书写时,直接 引语用引号。用自己的词语
来转述表达原来说话人说的内容,称为间接引语。
1. 直接引语改变为间接引语:
(1) 直接引语如果是陈述句,变为间接引语时应注意以下各点:
a) 不用引号,而用连接词that,但有时可省略。
b) 人称作相应变化;
c) 主句里的动词如果是过去时,间接引语中的时态一般应作相应改变: 一般现在时变一般过去时;一般将来时变过去将来时;现在进行时变过去进行时;现在完成时变成过去完成时;一
般过去时 变成过去完成时;但一般过去时如与一个具体的过去时间连用,则时态不变。
He says,.”→He says that he is not from the USA.
Mr Smith said to his girl friend,“ I haven’ t seen you for a long time.” →Mr Smith said to his
girl friend that he had not seen her for a long time.
2. 直接引语如果是一般疑问句,变为间接引语时,需用从属连接词whet her或if引导,词序要改变。如:
Lin Tao said to Miss Green, ” →Lin Tao asked Miss Green if it was made in
China.
3. 直接引语如果是特殊疑问句,变为间接引语时,需用疑问词引导,词序是:连词+主语+谓语。 如:
Lucy said to me, “How can I help?” →Lucy asked me how she could help.
4. 直接引语如是祈使句,变间接引语时,须将祈使句变为动词不定式,并在动词不定式前用tell, ask,
order. 如:He said to the little boy,“ Come here, young man! ” →He asked the little boy to go there.

37


初中英语语法
5. 直接引语变为间接引语时,指示代词以及表示时间和地点的词或词组应作相应变化:
在直接引语中 在间接引语中








 十六、倒装句: 谓语的一部分或者全部放在主语之前的句子称为倒装句。
1. There be句型以及以here

there开头的句子。如: There are a lot of children in the showroom. (在
展览室里有许多的小孩。) Here comes the bus. (公交车来了。) There goes the bell. (铃响了。) The
door opened and in came Mr Lee. (门开了,李先生走了进来。)
2. 用“So Nor Neither + 助动词 + 主语”倒装结构表示第二个人物的情况与上文的人物情况相同。
如:Tom went to the beach last week, and, so did I. (Tom上个星期去了海滩,我也是。) Li Mei’s
bought nothing from the shop. Neither has Jim. (李梅没有在店里买什么,Jim也没有买。)
3. 在疑问句中,通常使用在主语之前安放助动词的倒装方法,对主语提问除外。如:How did he find the
lost book? (他是怎么样找到丢失的书的?) Where are they going to spend the summer vacation? (他
们打算到哪儿过暑假?)
4. 感叹句中通常将被感叹的部分前移,而将句子的主谓语整体后置。 如:What a beautiful flower (it is)!
(那是多漂亮的花!)
5. 有引号引用某人的原话时, 引号外面的主谓一般采用倒装形式放在句尾,但是,若主语是代词则不倒
装。如:“What on earth are you doing up there?” said the father. (父亲说:“你在上边到底干什么?”)
“What on earth are you doing up there?”he said. (他说:“你在上边到底干什么?”)
this
these
now
ago
today
this week(month,etc.)
next week ( month,etc.)
yesterday
tomorrow
here
that
those
then
before
that day
that week ( month,etc.)
the next week ( month,etc.)
the day before
the next (following) day
there

38


初中英语 短语、句型
 短语
1. 感官动词see, watch, observe, notice, look at, hear, listen to, smell, taste, feel+ do表示动作的完整性,真实
性;+doing 表示动作的连续性,进行性。
I saw him work in the garden yesterday.昨天我看见他在花园里干活了。强调我看见了
I saw him working in the garden yesterday.昨天我见他正在花园里干活。强调我见他正干活
I saw him saving that girl.我看到他正在救那个女孩。
还有个+过去分词+sth.的,表示宾补动作被动 I saw the boy beaten.我看到那个男孩被打了。
2. agree with sb 赞成某人;along with同…一道,伴随…I will go along with you.
the students planted trees along with their teachers 学生同老师们一起种树
3. all over the world = the whole world 整个世界
4. As soon as 一怎么样就怎么样 as you can see 你是知道的
5. ask sb for sth 向某人要求什么.ask you for my book
ask sb to do sth 询问某人某事 ask sb not to do 叫某人不要做某事
6. at the age of 在……岁时 eg:I am sixteen I am at the age of sixteen
at the beginning of …… ……的起初;……的开始
at the end of +地点+时间 最后;尽头;末尾 eg : At the end of the day
at this time of year 在每年的这个时候
7. be feel confident of sth that clause +从句 感觉对什么有信心,自信
I am feel confident of my spoken English. I feel that I can pass the test.
8. be able to (+ v 原) = can (+ v 原) 能够…… eg: She is able to sing. She can sing.
9. be afraid to do (of sth 恐惧,害怕… eg: I'm afraid to go out at night. I'm afraid of dog
10. be allowed to do 被允许做什么 eg: I'm allowed to watch TV. I should be allowed to watch TV.
11. be angry with sb 生某人的气 eg: Don't be angry with me. be angry with sb for doing sth.
be mad at 生某人的气 he's mad at me for being late我迟到了他十分气愤
12. be bad for 对什么有害 eg : Reading books in the sun is bad for your eyes. be good for
13. be busy doing sth 忙于做什么事 be busy with sth 忙于……
14. be different from… 和什么不一样 be famous for 以…著名 be friendly to sb 对某人友好
15. be full of 装满…的 be filled with 充满
eg: the glass is full of water the glass is filled with water
16. be happy to do 很高兴做某事 be helpful to sb 对某人有好处

39


初中英语 短语、句型
eg : Reading aloud is helpful to you 大声朗读对你有好处
Exercising is helpful to your body 锻炼对你的身体有好处
17. be in good health 身体健康 be in trouble 处于困难中
be like 像…… eg: I'm like my mother 18. be interested in 对某方面感兴趣
19. be late for = come late to He was late for the meeting= He came late to the meeting.
20. be made from 由…制成(制成后看不见原材料) be made of 由……制成(制成后还看得见原材料)
21. be on a visit to 参观 be popular with sb 受某人欢迎
22. be short for 表**的缩写 eg:陶 is short for 陶俊杰
23. be sick in bed 生病在床 be supposed to do 被要求干什么
24. be sorry for sb. I am sorry for you. be sorry to trouble sb. I am sorry to trouble you
25. be strict in doing sth 严于做某事 eg : He's strict in obeying noles
be strict with sb 对某人要求严格 eg: Some students are not strict with them selves
be strict with sb in sth 某方面对某人严格
26. be sure of doing sth 对做某事有信心 He is sure of winning.I am sure of learning English well.
be sure of sth 对做某事有信心 I'm sure of my head.我相信我的大脑
be sure that sth 对做某事有信心 I'm sure that he can pass the test.
be sure to do sth一定会做某事 We are sure to pass the test 我们一定会通过这次考试
27. be terrified of + 名动doing 害怕……
28. be the same as … 和什么一样
be terrified to do sth 害怕做某事
be worth doing 值得做什么
29. be used to doing sth 习惯做某事 My father is used to getting up early..He is used to sleeping in class 他习
惯上课睡觉
30. be(feel) afraid to do sth 害怕做某事 be afraid of sth 害怕某物 be afraid that 丛句
31. because+句子 because of +短语
eg : He was late because he had a headache. He was late because of his headache
32. begin to do = start to do 开始做某事 start…with…=begin…with… 以什么开始什么
eg : Let's begin the game with the song. I begin to go home
33. between…and… 两者之间
34. borrow sth from sb 向……借…… lend sth to sb ( lend sb sth 借给……什么东西
eg : I borrowed a pen from him. he lent a pen to me ( he lent me a pen)
35. bother 打扰 bother sb to do sth

40


初中英语 短语、句型
eg : I'm sorry to bother you ,but can you tell me to way to the station
the problem has been bothering me for weeks 这个问题困扰了我几个周了
He's bothering me to lend him money
36. care 关心 eg : Don't you care about this country's future ?你为什么不关心国家的未来
37. catch up with sb 赶上某人 chat with sb 和某人闲谈 take sb to + 地点 带某人去某地
38. come up with 提出 eg: Can you come up with a good idea 你能想出一个好办法吗?
39. communicate with sb 和某人交流
40. consider + doing 考虑做什么 eg : Why not consider going to lu zhou 为什么不考虑去泸州?
41. dance to 随着……跳舞 eg : She likes dancing to the music 她喜欢随着音乐跳舞
42. decide to do sth 决定做某事 do a survey of 做某方面的调查
Don't forget to do sth 不要忘了做某事 do better in 在……方面做得更好
43. Don't mind +doing 从句 名词 不要介意……
44. each +名(单)每一个…eg : Each student has many books 每一个学生都有一些书
45. end up +doing enjoy +doing喜欢
46. escape from 从……逃跑 The prisoners have escaped from the prison犯人从监狱里逃跑出来
47. expect to do sth 期待做某事
48. fall down 摔下来 fall off 从哪摔下来 fall in love with sb sth 爱上什么
49. far from 离某地远 eg: The school is far from my home
50. find +it +adj +to do 发现做某事怎么样
find sbsth +adj 发现什么怎么样 eg: I find the book interesting.
51. finish 完成+doing(名词)
52. forget to do 没有做而忘了


fit to sb = be fit for sb 适合某人
forget doing 做了而又忘了
eg: Don't forget to go home. I forget closing door 我忘记已经关上门了.
53. get have sth down 做完,被(别人)做… eg: I have my hair cut 我理了发(头发被剪了)
Tom got his bad tooth pulled out 汤母把他的坏牙拔掉了(被牙医拔掉了)
54. get along well with sb = get on well with sb 与某人相处得好
get along with sb = get on with sb 与某人相处
55. get ready for = be ready for为什么而准备eg : I get ready for math. I am ready for math. 118 get sb into
trouble给某人惹上麻烦

41


初中英语 短语、句型
56. go fish 钓鱼 go swimming 游泳
57. go on to do 接着去做下一件事 go on doing 继续做这件事 go on with sth.间断后继续做
After they had read the text, the students went on to do the exercises.
读完课文后,学生们继续做练习。
The students went on talking and laughing all the way
一路上学生们一直有说有笑。
After a rest, we went on with our lesson(=After a rest, we went on having our lesson.).
休息以后,我们继续上课。
58. go to school 上学(用于专业的)go to the school 去学校(不一定是上学)
59. hate to do 讨厌没做过的事 hate doing 讨厌做过的事
60. have a party for sb 举办谁的晚会
61. have been to …( 地方)……去过某过地方 have gone to …(地方) 去了某地还没回来
62. have fun +doing 玩得高兴The kids are having fun playing in the park now.
63. have to do sth 必须做某事 I have to finish my homework before watching TV.
64. have trouble (problem) (in) doing sth 做什么事情有麻烦 have trouble with my English
65. help sb (to) do sth 帮助某人做某事
66. How about(+doing) = What about(+doing)
67. how do you like = what do you think of 你对什么的看法 How do you like the rooms here?
68. if=wether

eg: I don't know if (wether) I should go to the party 我不知道我是否应该去参加晚会
hope to do sth 希望做某事
He don't know if (wether) we will arrive on time tomorrow morning 他不知道我们明天早上是否能准
时到达
69. if :如果,假如(全部接一般时态)+条件语态从句
eg: I'll go to LuZhou if it does't rain 假如明天不下雨,我就去泸州
If they change the plan they will let me know 假如他们要改变计划,他们会让我知道的
I'll go to England ,if I have enough money next year 如果我明年由足够的钱,我就要去英国
70. in one's opinion = sb think 某人认为
71. in the end = finally(adv) 最后
in some ways 在某些方面
in the north of… 什么在什么的北方
72. increase 增加 eg : They've increased the prece of petrol by 3% 他们把石油价增加了3%
the population has increased from 12 million ten years ago to 18 million now
73. instead of +(名 ) 代替 eg: I'd like an apple instead of a pear 我想要苹果,而不要梨子

42


初中英语 短语、句型
I like English instead of math 我喜欢英语而不喜欢数学
74. introduce sb to sb 介绍某人给某人
75. It's time to do sth




invite sb to do sth 邀请某人做某事
It's time for sth 到了该去做某事的时间
eg : It's time to have class.
76. join = take part in 参加
It's time for class 该去上课了
77. keep sb adj 让……保持…… eg: I want to keep my mother happy.
78. laugh at… 取笑…… learn from sb 向某人学习 learn to do sth 学做某事
79. Let sb down 让某人失望 We shouldn't let our farents down 我们不应该让我们的父母失望
80. live in +大地方 at +小地方 居住在某地 eg: I live in LuZhou. She lives at XuanTan.
81. look after = take care of 照顾 照看
82. make a decision to do sth 决定做某事
83. make sb n +n 使什么成为什么 I made you my wife
make sb sth +adj 使某人(某物)怎么样 You must made your bed clean
84. make up be made up of (被动语态)由……组成
85. not anymore = no more 再也不…… eg: He didn't cry any more He cried no more 他再也不哭
86. not…at all 一点都不 He's not tall at all. she doesn't junp far at all.
87. not…either 表否定,也不 eg: I don't have sister, either 我也没有姐姐
88. not…until 直到……才…… eg: I didn't sleep until my mother came back.
89. offer sb sth =offer sth to sb 提供什么东西给某人 I offer you water =I offer water to you
90. on one's way to… 在谁去那的路上 on the phone = over the phone 用电话交谈
91. one of +可数名词的复数形式
92. over and over agin 一遍又一遍的 eg : He cleaned the floor over and over agin.
93. practice +doing 练习做某事
94. prefer sth to sth 相对…更喜欢… I prefer physics to chemisty .
prefer doing to doing He prefers riding a bike to diving 他更喜欢骑自行车,不开小车
I prefer reading a newspaper to watching TV.
prefer to do sth rather than do sth 宁愿做…也不愿 eg: My unde prefers to buy a new car rather
than repair the used one 我叔叔更喜欢买新的车,也不去修旧车
prefer sb not to do sth 更愿意… eg: I prefer her not to come 我不喜欢她不来

43


初中英语 短语、句型
95. pretend to do sth 装着去做什么 pretend that 从句
eg : The two cheats pretended to be working very hard 这两个骗子装着努力工作
He pretended that he did not know the answer 他装着不知道答案
96. rather…than 宁可……也不…… He likes dogs rather than cats 他喜欢狗,不喜欢猫
I would rather be a doctor than a teacher 我愿肯当医生,也不当老师
97. regard…as 把……当作…… I regard you as my friend 我把你当作我的朋友
Please give my best regards to your family 请带我向你的家人我最好的问候
98. remind sb about sth remind sb to do sth 提醒某人做某事
he reminds me about cooking =he reminds me to cook 他提醒我做饭
remind sb of sth 使某人想起什么 the pictures remind me of my school days
the words that (which) the teacher talke to remind me of my mother
99. return sth to sb 还什么东西给某人
100. say to oneself 对自己说 say to sb 对某人说
101. sb spend somemoney on sth 花了多少钱在某事上
sb spend sometime with sb 花了多少时间陪谁
sb spend sometime(in) doing sth 花了多少时间做某事
102. see sb do 看见某人做过某事 see sb doing 看见某人正在做某事
103. seem to dobe +adj 显得怎么样 eg : You seem to be tired. You seem to be happy.
104. send +sb sth 送给某人某物 show sb sth = show sth to sb 向某人展示某物
105. send…to…把什么寄到哪里去?
106. stay away from 远离…… We're told to stay away from the animals when visiting the zoo. If you want to
lose weight you'd better stay away from the sweet food.
107. stop doing 停下正在做的事 stop sb(from) doing 阻止某人做某事
stop to do 停下正在做的事去做下一件事
108. talk to 对谁说 talk with 和谁说 talk of 谈到 talk about 谈论关于……
109. teach sb sth 教某人做某事 tell sb sth 告诉某人某事
110. the way to do sth = the way of doing st做某方面的方法the way to +地方 去哪的路
Do you know the way to learn English. Do you know the way of learning English
111. too…to… 太…而不能… adj +enough to 足够…能… so…that +丛句
He is too young to go to school = He is so young that he can't go to school
He is old enough to go to school = He is so old that he can go to school

44


初中英语 短语、句型
112. transalte ……into…… 把什么翻译成什么 eg : Trasalte English into chinese
113. try one's best to do sth尽最大的努力去做 I will try my best to learn English well
try to do sth 想干什么,但没成功 try doing sth 想干什么,已经做过了
114. turn down 开小 turn up 开大 turn off 关上 turn on 打开
115. wait for sb 等某人
 常用句型
1. allow sb to do sth 允许某人去做某事(后接动词不定式)
My father allowed me to go out for a walk after finishing my homework.
2. asked sb (not) to do sth 叫某人做某事(叫某人不要去做某事)
My father asked me to study hard. He asked me not to swim alone.
be asked to do sth 被叫去邀请去做某事 I was asked to have a dinner with them yesterday.
3. be amazed to do sth 对做某事感到惊讶 He was amazed to meet the girl there.
be amazed at sth 对某事感到惊讶 They were amazed at the news.
4. be busy doingwith sth 忙于做某事(常考)
I was busy washing my car at that time. I am busy with my work.
5. becominggoingleavingfiyingmov ingdying(某些位移动词用进行时态时表将来)
The bus is comingthe dog is dying.
6. be excited to do sth 对做…感到兴奋Jacky was excited to travel there by plane.
Be excited at sth Lily was excited at his words.
Be excited about doing sth He was excited about passing the exam without going over books.
7. be frightened to do sth 害怕去做某事 Sam is frightened to ride a horse.
8. be gladhappy to do sth 高兴去做 She is happy to clean the blackboard with me.
be pleased to do sth 高兴做 She was pleased to help the old man yesterday.
be pleased with sth 对…感到高兴满意 The teacher was pleased with my answer.
9. be interested in sthdoingsth 对某事感兴趣对做某事感兴趣
She is interested in swimming in the river. My brother is interested in Chinese.
10. beget ready for 为某事做好了准备 We are ready for the exam.
Be ready to do sth 为做某事做好了准备 We are ready to have a birthday party for her.
get ready for sth为某事在做准备 We are getting ready for the exam.
11. be worth doing sth 值得做某事 (worth 后接动词-ing形式,常考)
It was too remote to be worth thinking about.

45


初中英语 短语、句型
12. begin to do sth beginstart to dodoing sth 开始去做某事
When do children begin to go to school?
13. canbe able to afford (tobuy) sth 有能力负担(购买)……
At this rate we won't be able to afford a holiday.
14. can't wait to do sth 迫不急待地去做某事 I can’t wait to hear the news.
15. decide to do sth 决定去做某事 make up one's mind to do sth 下决心去做某事(常考)
make a decision to do sth 对做某事作决定
What do they decide to do? I have made up my mind to go with him.
16. deserve to do sth 值得应该做…… We must admit that she did deserve to win.
17. encourage sb to do sth 鼓励某人去做某事
18. enjoy doing sth 喜欢去做某事 I enjoy reading the story book
19. expect (sb) to do sth 期望去做某事 Don't expect him to help you.
20. fail to do sth 做某事失败 If you do not work, you will fail to pass the exam.
21. finish doing sth 做完某事(后接动词-ing形式)(常考)
After finish doing your homework, you can have a rest.
22. follow sb to do sth 跟随某人去做某事 Follow me to read the new words.
23. gethave a chance to do sth得到一个做某事的机会
I'm very happy to have a chance to visit your school.
24. givepassshowlendsell sb sthsth to sb buygetbring sb sthsth for sb
Please give me a piece of paper. I bought him a drink in return for his help.
25. go on to do sth go ondoing sth 继续做事(常考) Go on doing the exercise after a short rest.
26. hate to dodoing sth 讨厌不喜欢做某事 I hate to tell the news to you.
27. have fun doing sth 做某事很有趣 Have fun getting to know each other.
28. have problems doing sth 做某事遇到困难 Many people have problems getting to sleep at night.
29. hear sb do sth 听到某人做某事(后接动词原形,常考)
hear sb doing sth 听到某人正在做某事(常见) I heard someone laughing.
30. help sb (to) do sth 帮助某人做某事 I'll help you clean the room.
31. wish sb to do sth 希望某人做某事 I wish to take this opportunity to thank you all.
32. It’s + adj+(for sb) to do sth. It's glad for him to hear the news.

46


初中英语 短语、句型
33. It takes sb sometimemoney to do sth . 花费某人多长时间做某事(常考)
It takes me an hour to walk there and back.
34. It’s best for sb to do sth. 对某人来说做某事是最好的 It's best for you to do more exercise.
35. had better do sth 最好做某事(注意had没有时态和人称的变化,better后接动词原形)
You had better go to the school.
36. It's time for sb to do sth 是某人做某事的时候了 It's time for us to have dinner.
37. keep (on) doing sth 坚持做某事(常考) John always kept (on) asking questions.
keep sb doing sth 让某人做某事(常考) Don't keep me waiting.
keep sb from doing sth 阻止某人做某事(常考) He keeps her from cutting the tree.
keep sbsth +adj 使某人保持……的状态 Washing your hands keeps you healthy.
38. learn to do sth 学做某事 I learn to play football.
learn sth from sb 向某人学习 I learn the spirit from him
39. like to dodoing sth 喜欢做某事 like sb to do sth 喜欢某人做某事
She likes swimming. She likes to swim this afternoon.
40. need to do sth need doing sthneed to be done 需要做某事
The garden needs to be watered. The garden needs watering.
41. prefer to do sth rather than do sth 宁愿……而不愿……(常考)
I would prefer to spend the weekend at home rather than drive out.
prefer doing sth to doing sth 喜欢做……胜过做……I prefer reading books to going shopping.
42. refuse to do sth 拒绝做…… I refuse to answer that question.
43. rememberforget to do sth 记得忘记做某事(没有发生)
Please do remember to post a letter for me.务必记得帮我寄信。
rememberforget doing sth 记得忘记做过某事
I remember telling you the news before. 我记得曾经告诉过你这个消息。
44. see sb do sth 看见某人做某事(结果) be seen to do sth 做某事被看见
I saw them play football last weekend.
I saw him get on the bus. = He was seen to get on the bus.
see sb doing sth 看见某人正在做某事(正在进行中) I saw her cleaning the classroom.
45. something to eatdrink 一些吃喝的东西(词不定式放在something等后修饰这些词)
I need something to eat. 我要一些吃的东西。
46. spend some time (in) doingsth on sth 花费时间做某事(注意动词要用ing形式)(常考)
I spent 2 hours on homework. = I spent 2 hours in doing homework.

47


初中英语 短语、句型
spend some money on sthdoing sth 买……花了多少钱
I often spend some money on the book. I often spend some money buying the book.
47. Sth is harddifficulteasy to do . 做好某事很难容易 The question is easy to answer.
48. stop to do sth停下来去某事(两件事)(常考) The girl stopped to talk to me when they saw me. stop doing sth
停止做某事(一件事)(常考) The two girls stopped talking when they saw me.
stop sb (from) doing sth 阻止某人做某事I tried to stop my father from smoking, but failed.
49. take turns to do sth 轮流做…… They take turns to do the cleaning.
50. There is no need (for sb) to do sth 对某人来说没必要做某事 There is no need for you to worry.
51. have no time to do sth 没时间做某事 I have no time to do morning exercises.
52. used to do sth 过去常做某事 I used to live in the country.
used to be + adja +n 曾经是... Mr. Wang used to be a teacher worker.
53. would like to do sth=want to do sth= feel like doing sth 想要做……
I don't feel like walking very much today.
54. wantwould like sb to do sth 想某人做…… I would like you to go away.
55. warn sb (not) to do sth 警告某人做某事(或不要做某事)
His mother warned him not to go out in the evening.
56. Why don't you do sth ?= Why not do sth ? 为什么不……(表建议的句型,注意用动词原形)
Why not have a rest?
57. Would you please (not) dosth 你可不可以做(不做)……
Would you please open the door? Would you please not close the windows?
58. Would you mind doing sth? 你介意做某事吗?
回答:不介意(No+……)Never mindNot at allOf course notCertainly not .
回答:介意(Yes+……) I'm sorry but I do. Sorry, you'd better not. I'm afraid you can't. -Would you mind my
opening the door? - No, of course not.
59. go on doing sth 继续做某事,指前后做的是同一件事。
The students went on talking and laughing all the way.
60. finish doing sth 完成某事 She finished cleaning the room.
61. be busy doing sth 忙于做某事 I am busy in cleaning my room.
62. practice doing sth 练习做某事 You'd better practicing reading and speaking English every day.
63. be good at doing sth 擅长做某事 I am good at playing basketball.

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初中英语 短语、句型
64. be interested in doing sth 对做某事的兴趣 I'm interested in playing games.
65. be afraid of doing sth 担心(害怕)会发生某事My little sister is afraid of staying at home alone.
66. seehearwatch sb doing sth 听看观察到某人正在做某事 I hear him singing.
67. What’s the matter with sb. sth? 出什么毛病了? Eg. What’s the matter with your watch?
68. be different from 与......不同 Eg. The weather in Beijing is different from that of Nanjing.
69. be the same as 与……相同 Eg. His trousers are the same as mine.
70. be friendly to sb. 对某人友好 Eg. Mr. Wang is very friendly to us.
71. want to do sth. 想做某事 Eg. I want to go to school.
want sb. to do sth. 想让某人做某事 Eg. I want my son to go to school.
72. what to do 做什么 Eg. We don’t know what to do next.
73. let sb. do sth. 让某人做某事 Eg. Let him enter the room.
let sb. not do sth. 让某人不做某人 Eg. Let him not stand in the rain.
74. why don’t you do sth? 怎么不做某事呢? Eg. Why don’t you play football with us?
why not do sth.? 怎么不做某事呢? Eg. Why not play football with us?
75. make sb. sth. 为某人制造某物 Eg. My father made me a kite.
make sth for sb. 为某人制造某物 Eg. My father made a kite for me.
76. What …mean by …? 做……是什么意思? Eg. What do you mean by doing that?
77. like doing sth. 喜欢做某事 Eg. Jim likes swimming.
like to do sth. 喜欢做某事 Eg. He doesn’t like to swim now.
feel like doing sth. 想做某事 Eg. I feel like eating bananas.
would like to do sth. 愿意做某事 Eg. Would you like to go rowing with me?
would like sb. to do sth. 愿意某人做某事 Eg. I’d like you to stay with me tonight.
make sb. do sth. 使某人做某事 Eg. His brother often makes him stay in the sun.
let sb. do sth. 让某人做某事 Eg. Let me sing a song for you.
have sb. do sth. 使某人做某事 Eg. You shouldn’t have the students work so hard.
78. be far from sp 离某地远 Eg. His school is far from his home.
79. be near to sp 离某地近 Eg. The hospital is near to the post office.
80. be good at sth. 擅长某事做某事
Eg. We are good at English. They are good at boating.
81. It takes sb. some time to do sth. 某人花多少时间做某事

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初中英语 短语、句型
Eg. It took me more than a year to learn to draw a beautiful horse in five minutes.
sb. spends some timemoney (in ) doing sth. 某人花多少时间做某事
I spent twenty years in writing the novel.
sb. spends some timemoney on sth. 某事花了某人多少时间金钱
Jim spent 1000 yuan on the bike.
sth. costs sb. some money. 某物花了某人多少钱 Eg. The bike cost Jim 1000 yuan.
sb. pays some money for sth. 某人为某物付了多少钱 Eg. Jim paid 1000 yuan for the bike.
82. beginstart with sth. 开始做某事 Eg. They started the meeting with a song.
be going to do sth. 打算做某事 Eg. We are going to study in Japan.
83. 34. call A B 叫A B Eg. They called the village Gumtree.
84. thank sb. for sth. 感谢某人做某事 Thank you for your you for helping me.
85. What ……for? 为什么 Eg. What do you learn English for?
86. How what about doing sth.?做某事怎么样? Eg. How about going fishing?
87. S +be+ the+最高级+ofin短语 Eg. Lucy is the tallest in her class.
S + be +比较级+than any other + n. Eg. Lucy is taller than any other student in her class.
88. have to do sth. 不得不做某事 Eg. I have to go home now.
had better do sth. 最好做某事 Eg. You’d better study hard at English.
had better not do sth. 最好别做某事 Eg. You’d better not stay up.
89. help sb. to do sth. 帮助某人做某事 Eg. Lucy often helps Lily to wash her clothes.
help sb. do sth. 帮助某人做某事 Eg. He usually helps me learn English.
help sb. with sth. 帮助某人做某事 Eg. I sometimes help my mother with the housework.
90. make it +时间 把时间定在几点 Eg. Let’s make it 8:30.
91. take sb. to sp 带某人到某地 Eg. Mr. Wang will take us to the Summer Palace next Sunday.
92. have nothing to do (with sb) 与某人没有关系 Eg. That has nothing to do with me.
93. 主语+ don’t think+ 从句 认为……不…… Eg. I don’t think it will rain tomorrow.
94. It’s + adj.+ for sb. to do sth. 做某事对某人来说怎么样 Eg. It is lucky for you to go to London.
95. How + adj adv + 主+ 谓! 多么……啊! Eg. How beautiful the flower is!
what + aan + adj + n + 主+ 谓! Eg. What an beautiful flower it is!
What + adj+ pl. +主+ 谓! Eg. What bad weather it is today!
96. find it + adj+ to do sth. 发现做某事如何 Eg. I find it hard to speak English well!
97. ask sb. for sth. 向某人要某物 Eg. They often ask me for money.

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初中英语 短语、句型
98. need to do sth. 需要做某事 Eg. You need to study hard.
need sth 需要某物 Eg. I don’t need your money.
99. use A to do B 用A来做B Eg. We use pens to write.
100. show sb. sth 给某人看某物 Eg. Please show me the map.
show sth. to sb. 把某物给某人看 Eg. Please show the map to me.
pass sb. sth. 把某物递给某人 Eg. Pass me the cup of tea.
pass sth. to sb. 把某物递给某人 Eg. Pass the cup of tea to me.
buy sb. sth. 为某人买某物 Eg. Mother bought me a bike.
buy sth. for sb. 为某人买某物 Eg. Mother bought a bike for me.
give sb. sth 把某物给某人 Eg. Jim gave me an English dictionary.
give sth. to sb. 把某物给某人 Eg. Jim gave an English dictionary to me.
101. get to sp 达到某地 Eg. I got to Beijing on the morning of May 1st.
arrive at in sp 达到某地 Eg. I arrived in Beijing on the morning of May 1st.
reach sp 到达某地 Eg. I reached Beijing on the morning of May 1st.
102. hope to do sth. 希望某人做某事 Eg. I hope to see you soon.
103. there is sth. wrong with . 某物某人出什么状况了 Eg. There is something wrong my car.
sth. is wrong with … 某物出什么毛病了 Eg. Something is wrong with my car.
104. How do you like sth? 你认为……怎么样? Eg. How do you like Beijing?
What do you think of sth.? 你认为……怎么样? Eg. What do you think of Beijing?
105. enjoy doing sth. 喜欢做某事 Eg. They all enjoy living and working in China.
106. start doing sth. 开始做某事 Eg. I started learning English in 1983.
start to do sth. 开始做某事 Eg. I started to watch TV after finishing my homework.
finish doing sth. 完成作某事 Eg. I finished cleaning my car just now.
107. What when where who something anything nothing else ……别的什么……
Eg. What else do you want to buy? Where else have you gone?
Who else have you played with? I have nothing else to tell you.
Would you like something else?
108. forget doing sth. 忘记做过某事了(已做)
Eg. I forgot turning off the lights. Look, it is dark in the room.
forget to do sth. 忘了做某事了(未做)
Eg. I forgot to turn off the lights. Could you go back and shut them off?
remember doing sth. 记得做过某事了(已做)
Eg. I remembered returning your money. You are so forgetful.

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初中英语 短语、句型
remember to do sth. 记住去做某事(未做)
Eg. Remember to bring me some money. I’ve run out of it.
109. stop to do sth. 停下来去做某事 Eg. He stopped to talk with Mary when she enter the office.
stop doing sth. 停止做某事 Eg. The students stopped talking when the teachet came in.
110. watchseehear sb. do sth. 观看看见听见某人做了某事(全过程)
Eg. I saw you pick an apple just now.
watchseehear sb. doing sth. 观看看见听见某人正在做某事(点动作)
Eg. I saw you playing basketball with your classmates on the playground last Sunday.
111. go on doing sth. 继续作某事 Eg. He went on reading after a short rest.
go on to do sth. 继续作某事 Eg. He went on to read after finishing wash the dishes.
go on with sth. 继续某事 Eg. He went on with his work after a short rest.
112. say hellogoodbye to sb. 向某人告别 Eg. I came to say good-bye to you.
113. be busy doing sth. 忙于做某事 Eg. They are busy planting trees on the hill.
114. be interested in sth. 对某事感兴趣 Eg. We are all interested in it.
115. callring sb. up 给某人打电话 Eg. I will call you up tommow.
116. be ready to do sth. 准备做某事 Eg. We are ready to have lunch.
117. go doing sth. 去做某事 Eg. Let’s go fishing.
118. prefer Adoing A to Bdoing B 比起A做A,更喜欢B做B Eg. Lucy prefers English to French.
I prefer staying at home to going to the cinema.

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初中英语 中考复习笔记
 [短语、词组归纳]
一、 动词+介词 相当于及物动词,其后必须带宾语。
look at…看…, look like … 看上去像……, look after …照料…
listen to…听…… welcome to…欢迎到…… say hello to …向……问好
二、 动词+副词
1. 动词(vt.)+副词 1.put on 穿上 2.take off脱下 3.write down记下
可以带宾语 ,宾语若是名词,放在副词前后皆可;宾语若是人称代词,只能放在副词的前面。
2. 动词(vi)+副词。此类短语属于不及物动词,不可以带宾语。
come on赶快 get up起床 go home回家 stand up起立
三、 介词短语 “介词+名词代词”
in+语言颜色衣帽等,表示使用某种语言或穿着……。
in + Row Team Class Grade等,表示“在……排队班级年级”等。
in the morning afternoon evening 表示“在上午下午傍晚”等一段时间。
in the desk pencil-boxbedroom 等表示“在书桌铅笔盒卧室里”。
in the tree表示“在树上 (非树本身所有)”;on the tree表示“在树上(为树本身所有)”。
in the wall表示“在墙上(凹陷进去)”;on the wall表示“在墙上(指墙的表面)”。
at work(在工作)at school(上学)at home(在家)应注意此类短语中无the。
at + 时刻表示钟点。
like thisthat表示方式,意为“像……这那样”。
behind beside near under+ 名词等,表示方位、处所。
from与to多表示方向,前者意为“从……”,后者意为“到……”。
另外,如:on duty, after breakfast, at night, at the door, in the middle, in the sky, on one’s bike等。
四、 重点短语
be famous for 因……而著名 on ones way to在……途中
at the end of在……的尽头,在……的末尾 wait for 等待
inontime 及按时 go wrong 走错路
beget lost 迷路 make a noise 吵闹,喧哗
get on off 上下车 at the head of……在……的前头
laugh at 嘲笑 throw about 乱丢,抛散
in fact 实际上 at midnight 在半夜
have a good time=enjoy oneself玩得愉快 quarrel with sb. 和某人吵架
haveget a pain in…某处疼痛 have a headache 头痛
as soon as… 一……就…… feel like doing sth. 想要干某事
stop…from doing sth. 阻止……干某事 instead of 代替
had better(not) do sth. 最好(不要)干某事 look over 检查
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初中英语 中考复习笔记
at the weekend 在周末 run away 逃跑
no longermore=not…any longermore 不再 eat up 吃光,吃完
take sth. with sb. 某人随身带着某物
think of 考虑到,想起
It’s time for sth. 该到做某事的时间了. It’s time to do sth.(It’s time for sb. to do sth)
can’t wait to do sth. 迫不及待地要求做某事.
ask (tell)sb. (not )to do sth . 请(告诉)某人(不)做某事.
makelet sb. to do sth. 让某人做某事.
hearseesb. do sth 听见看见某人做某事.
had better(not )do sth 最好不做某事. It’s better to do sth最好做某事
run after 追赶
stop to do sth 与stop doing sth 停下来去做某事(与)停止做某事.
forgetremember to do 与 forgetremember doing sth.忘记记得去做某事(与) 忘记记得曾经做过事.
What do you mean by….?你….是什么意思?
What do you think of …(How do you like ….)你认为….怎么样?
agree with sb 赞成某人;along with 同……一道,伴随… I will go along with you
五、 重点句型
1. I think… “我认为……”,对某人或某事的看法或态度。否定式I don’t think…,
2. give sth. to sb. give sb. sth. 意为“把……给……”,动词give之后可接双宾语,可用这 两种句型;
若指物的宾语是人称代词时,则只能用give it them to sb.
3. take sb. sth. to…意为“把……(送)带到……”,后常接地点,也可接人。
4. One…, the other…One is…and one is… “一个是…;另一个是…”,必须是两者中。
5. Let sb. do sth. “让某人做某事”,不带to的动词不定式,否定式为Don’t let sb,do sth.或Let sb. not do sth.
Let’s 与Let us,前者包括听者在内,后者不包括听者在内,
6. help sb. (to) do sb. with sth. “帮助某人做某事”,前者用不定式作宾补,后者用介词短语作宾补,
二者可以互换.
7. What about…?How about…? “……怎么样?”询问或征求观点、意见、看法等。about为介词,其
后须接名词、代词或V- ing等形式。
8. It’s time to do… It’s time for sth.其中to后接原形动词,for后接名词或V-ing形式。
9. like to do doing sth. 前者侧重具体的一次性的动作;后者侧重习惯性的动作,
10. ask sb.(not) to do sth. “让某人(不要)做某事”,其中ask sb.后应接动词不定式,
11. show sb. sth. show sth. to do. “把某物给某人看”。
12. So + be/助动词/情牵动词/主语. 前面陈述的肯定情况也适于另一人(物)时,常用到这种倒装

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初中英语 中考复习笔记
结构,表示“另一人(物)也如此。”前面 陈述的否定情况也适于另一人(物)时,常用“Neither Nor +
be/助动词/情态动词+主语.”这种倒装结构。
Xiao Ming is a good student. So he is.(小明是个好学生。他确实如此)
Xiao Ming is a good student. So is he.(小明是个好学生。他也是。
13. …think/find + it + adj. + to do sth. 此句型中的 it是形式宾语,不可用其它代词替代,形容词作宾语
的补足语,后面的动词不定式(短语)才是真正的 宾语。
14. 在so…that…复合句中,that后的句子是否定句时,常与简单句too… to…(太…而不能…)进行句型
转换。 that后的句子是肯定句时,常与简单句…enough to…进行句型转换.
15. She used to be a Chinese teacher. 她过去是一位汉语老师。
[用法] used to + 动词原形,表示过去经常性的动作或存在的状态,含有现在不再如此之意。
[搭配] used to do的否定式可以是usedn’t to do或didn’t use to do.
[比较] used to do sth. 过去常做某事;be get used to doing sth. 习惯于做某事;be used to do sth. 被用
来做某事。
16. …return it sooner or later. ……迟早要将它归还。
return此处用作及物动词,意为“归还”,相当于give back.
17. No matter what the weather is like…无论天气……
[用法]no matter what 相当于whatever,其意为“无论什么”,引导状语从句。
[拓展]类似no matter what的表达方式还有:
no matter when无论什么时候;no matter how 无论怎么样
18. A young man practised speaking English with Mr. Green.
一位年经人与格林先生练习讲英语。 [用法]practise doing sth. 表示“实践、练习做某事”。
19. He encouraged everyone to take part in protecting our lakes, rivers, seas and oceans. 他鼓励大家参加
保护我们的湖泊、河流和海洋的活动。
[用法]1)encourage用作动词, “鼓励”、“支持”。 2)take part in“参加”,常表示参加活动。 3)protect 是
动词,表示“防御”、“保护”。
[搭配]1)encourage sb. in sth.在某事上鼓励或支持某人;encourage sb. to do sth.鼓励某人干某事
2)protect sh. from sth.使某人不受某事侵袭或伤害
20. …to warn people about sharks in the water. ……警告人们当心水里的鲨鱼。
[用法] warn用作动词,意思是“警告”、“警戒”。
[搭配]1)warn sb.+ that从句 2)warn sb. of sth. 警告某人某事 3)warn sb. to do sth.告诫某人
做某事 4)warn sb. against(doing) sth.告诫某人当心某事不要做某事
六、 初中英语笔记大全
1. This is the key to the door .这是开门的钥匙。

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初中英语 中考复习笔记
2. 以副词there或here开头的句子常要倒装,以示强调。名词如果有数量词修饰,谓语动词 应适应数量
词,如:here is a set of keys. Here are two sets of keys.
3. have(有生命物体);there is(无生命物体)
have表示“有”时才可以用来提问或写成否定“haven’t”。
4. get to somewhere (get home除外)到达……
5. How much + be + 商品?(答:It’sThey’re…) = What is the price of…?(答:It ’s……)
6. hundred,thousand与基数词一起表示具体数字时不加“s”。hundreds of , thousands of
7. buy sth. for sb. = buy sb.(间接宾语) sth.(直接宾语) 为某人买某物
8. for表示动词的对象或接受者, 表示用途,表示目的,表示等价交换或标注价格,表示时间持续多久,
表示距离,表示理由或原因。 be famous for…… 因……出名 result for do sth.
问:How long do you have volleyball? 答:I have volleyball for two hours.
make a plan for 为……做计划 We come here for vacation.
buy sb. sth. = buy sth. for sb. play for 为……而战
Thanks for + n. = Thanks sb. for + n.
9. each强调两者或以上的每一个,强调个体;every强调三者或以上的每一个,强调整体。+三单
10. on a cold morning 在一个寒冷的早晨
11. when……?答不用具体时间 what time……?答要用具体时间
12. think的宾语从句有否定,否定前移。 She doesn’t think they are boring.(她认为他们不无聊)
13. 表示时间、价格、距离的名词作主语,谓语动词用单数。如:Two dollars is enough(足够)。
14. be good with sb. = get on well with sb.与某人相处很好 make friend with sb.和…交朋友
be strict with sb. be strict in sth. doing sth.
be busy with sth. be busy doing sth.
be friendly to sb. 对某人友好
be angry with sb.
discuss with sb. sth.



be satisfied with…… 对……满意
play a joke on sb. 和某人开玩笑
Angry with sb. about sb. 为某事生某人的气。
agree with sb. agree to do sth. I agree with you. 我同意你的观点。
end up with sth. 以……结束 begin with sth.
15. below 在……下方(非正下方);反义词:above 在……上面(非正上方,没有接触面)
under 在……下面(正下方);反义词:on(有接触面),over(没有接触面)在…上面(正上方)
16. play + the + 乐器 Erhu除外
17. 问:How often does Rick run on weekend? 答:Rick usually runs on weekend.

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初中英语 中考复习笔记 always(总是),usually(通常),often(经常),sometime(有时),se ldom(很少),never(从不)。频度
副词放在be动词或助动词之后,实意动词或行为动词之 前。
18. 感叹句:What + (aan) + adj. + n. + (主) + (谓) !如:What beautiful flowers they are!
How + adj. adv. + (主) + (谓) !如:How beautiful the flowers are!
19. ask sb. some questions. 问某人一些问题; ask sb. to do sth. 叫某人做某事
20. 用“may”提问的句子回答用cancan ‘ t或must mustn’ t;用“can”提问的句子回答用cancan’t;用“must”提
问的句子回答用needneedn’t.
如:1. May I park my car here? Yes,you ,you can’tmustn’t.
2. Can I watch TV? Yes, you can. No, you can’t.
3. Must I clean the classroom this morning? Yes, you need. No, you needn’t.
21. be afraid of doing sth. be afraid of sth. 害怕做某事某物
22. be fond of = like
23. make a continuation to sth. 对……有贡献
24. do well in = be good at 擅长…… 不擅长:be weak is
25. 法国人单数:FrenchmanFrenchwoman 英国人单数:EnglishmanEnglishwoman
Chinese和Japanese单复数同形
26. in the school 在学校里 in school 在学校学习
27. outside 在……外面 outside the gate to the park 在公园门外
28. go down + …… 沿着 …… 路走 go straight down + …… 沿着 …… 路直走
29. enjoy doing sth. 喜欢做某事 enjoy oneself = have a good time = have fun
30. the beginning of ……的开始 at the beginning of 强调在……开始的那一刻
from the beginning 开始时 in the beginning 起初,一开始
from beginning to end 从开始到结束
31. have fun doing sth. 做……很开心
32. 地点 + is a great place to do sth. ……是一个做……的地方
33. the way to ……去……的路 on the way to + 地点 在去……的路上
on one’s way to + 地点 某人在去……的路上 on my way to home 在我回家的路上
34. live on ……靠……为生 in the south of 在……南部
35. between 两者之间 among 三者或三者以上之间
36. because+句子;because of+名词短语代词。I didn’t go to school,because I was illbecause of the illness.
57


初中英语 中考复习笔记
37. asleep 睡着的 adj. fall asleep 入睡 be asleep 正睡着
38. don’t forget to do sth. 不要忘记做某事
39. tell sb. to do sth. 叫某人去做某事
40. practice doing sth. 练习做某事
41. 比较级中的代词用that , 如:The map of Beijing is better than that of Tianjin.
42. be careful not to do sth. 小心别做某事
43. do one’s best 尽某人的全力 learn by oneself = teach oneself 自学
tell sb. not to do sth. 叫某人不去做某事
44. 条件状语从句:主语为将来时,从句为一般现在时。如:We’ll have a sports meeting if it doesn’t rain
tomorrow.
45. It’s (形式主语) + adj. + (for sb.) + to do sth.(主语) 做某事怎么样。
如:It’s important for him to play the piano . 弹钢琴对他很重要。
It’s + adj. + of sb. to do sth. (adj.应为sb.的本身性质)
如:It’s kind of you to help me. 你帮助了我,你真好。
46. go across the bridge 过桥
47. in + 时间段(将来时)多久后
48. What fine weather it is ! = How fine the weather is !
49. stay + adj. 保持……
50. He doesn’t want to do anything. = He wants to do nothing.
51. dress sb. 为某人穿衣打扮
52. be different from 与……不同
53. look after = take care of 照顾(重视)
54. although = though 让步状语从句:虽然、尽管
55. if:条件状语从句,用一般现在时表将来时。
56. send sb. sth. = send sth. to sb. show sb. sth. = show sth. to sb.
57. think (过去式:thought) :think about sth. doing sth. 思考…… think of :想起
58. leave somewhere 离开某地;
59. plan→planned→planning
60. finish doing sth. 完成某事

58
leave for somewhere 离开去某地


初中英语 中考复习笔记
61. I can’t wait to do sth. 我迫不及待想做某事
62. depend on 依赖于
63. in the mountain 在山区
64. get to = reach = arrive in at in大地方;at小地方
65. sit at the table 用餐
66. the final(adj. 最后的) exam 期末考试
67. It’s + 距离 + from A to B 划线部分提问:
It’s ten kilometres from my home to far is it from your home to school ?
68. It take sb.……to do sth. 例:It takes him about 10 minutes to ride to the station.
ride 车程 :An hour’s bus ride will take you there.
How far is it from your home to school? It′s 10 kilometers.10 minutes walk.
69. final = at last =in the end
70. not all (部分否定)并非所有:Not all students are here.
71. What do you think of ? = How do you like ?
72. the number of ……的数量,谓动用单数(is)The number of the students is 100.
73. invite (v.) → invitation (n.) decide→decision foreign→foreigner
74. on one’s way to : 谁在前往……的路上
75. another + 数字 + 复数名词
76. You’d better do sth. not do sth.
77. 比较级前面加上表示“优劣程度”的词或短语,意思是“更……”,“……得……”。常见词有much ,a little ,
even ,a lot ,a great deal等。
He is much taller than I. I jump a little higher than he.
78. 比较级前面可以加上表示具体数量差别的结构,表示具体“大多少”,“长多少”,“短多少”等。
I am two years older than he. This building is 20 meters higher than that one.
79. the+比较级…of the two…表示两个当中较……的一个如:The taller of the two boys is my brothers.
80. 只有同类的事物才能比较如:Her bag is bigger than mine. ≠Her bag is bigger than I.
81. need to do sth,主动; need doing sth=need to be done,被动。
82. real,真正的;ture, 真的(不是假的)
Excuse , you’re in my way : 你挡到我了

59


初中英语 中考复习笔记
83. The rain poured down yesterday. 昨晚倾盆大雨。
84. at the end of指一个时间点;by the end of指到这个时间为止的时间
85. in the end of=finally=at last
86. all day long 一整天
87. put out,拿出来;熄灭。 Put out the fire.
88. talent,后天的才能;gift,天生的
89. start doing sth. = start to do sth.
90. a usual boy; an unusual girl
91. too……to My brother is too young to go to school.
My brother is so young that he can’t go to school.
take off 起飞、脱掉
so……that
92. love→lovely可爱的→loving慈爱的
93. take part in = join in 参加活动(join:加入某组织或团体)
94. admire 羡慕 v.t I admire her story. I admire him for his discovery.
95. stop sb. from doing sth. 阻止某人做的事
96. We won’t go shopping if it is rain tomorrow. 条件或时间状语用一般现在时
97. what was wrote 更糟糕的是
98. keep sth openclosed
99. over = more than
100. leave one’s job 辞职
101. in front of —— behind in the front of —— at the back of
102. rise 升上來(主動) The sun rise in the east.
raise 把……升上來 We raise our national flag every Monday.
103. 陈述句直接引语变间接引语,从句中的人称、时态、指示代词、时间状语、地点状语等要相应变化。
John said,“I like reading the story.” →John said that he liked reading the story.
He said to me,“I broke your CD player.” →He told me that he had broken my CD player.
He said,“I had finished my homework before supper.”→He said that he had finished his homework before
supper.
She said,“I’ll do it after class.”→She said that she would do it after class.
She said,“I’ve not heart from him since May.”→She said that she had not heart from him since May.

60


初中英语 中考复习笔记
104. Chinese Japanese fish deer sheep,单复数同形
105. I collected shells when I was ten. 一般过去时
I have collected shells since I was ten. 现在完成时
I have been collecting shells since I was ten. 现在完成进行时
现在完成时要用since加在过去时间前
Since加时间点 ,for加一段时间 since five years ago for five years
106. run → ran → run run out of 用尽
run out of:主语是人 run out:主语是物
107. apply for :申请;请求 (apply for a position 求职)
Everyone wants to apply for the job.
He applied to the headmaster for the job.
108. Write in English 用英语写
109. Another前面不能加定冠词the
110. Although、though:让步状语从句,不与but连用
111. advice是不可数名词:误:an advice;正:a piece of advice
advise v. 忠告,劝说,劝说;(I) v. 通知(=inform)
advise sb not to do sth. advise sb against doing sth. 劝说某人不要做某事
advise v. 通知(=inform) advise sd. of sth. 向某人通知某事 (搭配同类inform)
112. Have you thought of the solution to the problem?
113. behave v. 处身,行为,做人,举止,表现;(机器等)开动,运转
behaviour [bi’heivjə] n. 行为,品行;举止,态度,举动,表现,行动
114. take care (not) to do sth. 注意(不)做某事。
115. social adj. 社会的,社会上的;交际的,社交的;喜欢交际的;合群的
116. normal adj. 正常的,平常的,普通的;平均的。正规的,标准的。
117. polite adj. 有礼貌的;殷勤的;斯文的;文雅的;有教养的。
impolite adj. 没礼貌的,失礼的,粗鲁的。 politely adv.
118. Try not to do sth.尽量不做某事;try to do sth. 尽力做某事;try doing sth. 尝试做某事
119. sth. happen to sb. 某事发生在某人身上 happen to do sth. 碰巧做某事
120. even if(即使) = although = though
121. You’d better keep your voice down.

61


初中英语 中考复习笔记
122. situation n. (房屋建筑等的)地点,位置;场所。形势,局面。
123. Cut in front of you in line. 插队插在你前面。
124. allow sb. to do sth.
125. Be late to sth.
to one’s surprise
Be late for doing sth.
126. improve [im’pru:v] v. 改良,改善,增进。利用,活用。增高(土地等的)价值。
127. hear from sb. 收到某人来信 hear from sb.’s letter.(收到某人信的来信)
128. native speaker of English 以英语为母语的人
129. encourage sb. to do sth. 鼓励某人做某事
130. by heart 用心
131. Have Make sth. done 使某物被……
132. satisfy [‘sætəsfai] v. 使满足,使果腹;达到(要求)。令人满意。
133. learn about 了解
134. six months earlier 提前六个月 six months ago六个月前
135. instead [in’sted] ad. 代替,顶替。
136. contest n. & v. 竞争,争论。竞赛,比赛。争夺(胜败,土地等)。
137. Tom is a bad student.
138. have has been to 去过
139. borrow sth. from sb. lend sth. to sb.
So he is 表赞同 So is Mary 表另一个也是要倒装
140. yet [jet] ad. 仍 用法 在现在完成时的句子中,already常用于肯 定句,yet常用于否定句和疑问句,但
yet还有其他用法。 1. 用于否定句中,意思是“还、尚、迄今、到那时”。
141. so far 到目前为止(常用于现在完成时)
142. attract v. [ə’trækt] 吸引。引诱,诱惑。
attraction n. [ə’træk∫ən] 引,吸引;引力。引人注意的东西;有趣的东西。
143. mean v. & a. [mi:n] 意,有…的意思,意思是…。卑鄙的;自私的。
144. probably 可能性最大
145. hear of about 听说
146. character [‘kærəktə] n. 性格,品格;特性,性状,特征;【生物学】形质。

62
perhaps 可能性居中 maybe 可能性最小


初中英语 中考复习笔记
147. become [bi’kʌm] 短暂性动词 I’ve become a singer.
148. brave [breiv] a. 勇敢的。华丽的,漂亮的。 v. 冒 (风雨、危险等),抵抗;不顾。
149. start doing sth. = start to do sth.
150. be close to 靠近
151. nature n. 自然(现象),大自然;自然界;自然力;天理,道理。
natural a. 自然界的;关于自然界的。野生的。
152. 相对于过去时间已经做某事用过去完成时;in the past last 一段时间:用现在完成时;
现在完成时不与过去的时间连用
153. end up 结束 The party usually end up with a song.
154. on board 在船上(在甲板上)
155. come along 出现
156. be sure of sth. doing sth. 对……有把握
157. keepstopprevent sb from doing sth 阻止(某人)做某事
he keeps her from cutting the tree. he prevents her from cutting the tree.
he stopps her from cutting the tree. I stopped him from sleeping.
158. take turn to do sth. doing sth. 轮流做某事 let's take turns to clean the room.
159. across从表面经过 through 从内部穿过 past 穿过走过
160. feel like 感觉起来像 + 名词代词动名词
161. just:现在完成时 just now:过去时
162. in a word 简言之;一言以蔽之
163. work hard on …… 在……方面努力
164. achieve [ ə’ʧi:v ] v. 完成,做到;获得(胜利等);达到(目的),实现。
165. pick up sb. 接某人回来
166. believe sb. 相信某人的话 believe in sb. 信任某人
167. awake、asleep 只能作后置定语或表语
168. as long as 只要
169. absolutely ad. 完全地。确实地。独裁地。
170. be full of= be filled with

63


初中英语 中考复习笔记
The room is full of people = The room is filled with people.
fill sth. with sth. 用……把……充满 Fill the bottle with water.
171. advise (v.) sb. to do sth. a piece of advice (n.).
172. be confident of 对……自信
173. until + 一般现在时表将来
174. make mistakes in ……
175. She often keeps practicing speaking English. practice doing sth.
176. feel + adj. The clothes fell soft. 衣服感觉很软
177. also 行前系后 I can also speak English well.
178. 时间、距离、金钱、看成一个整体 Two years goes by.
179. The TV play ended up with a sad ending.电视剧以悲剧结尾。
180. 情态动词 + be + ving 表示对正在进行的情况进行推测
At this moment our teacher may be correcting our examination paper.
情态动词 + have + 动词的过去分词 表示对过去的推测
The road is wet ,it must have rained last night.
181. Might 有“规劝”的意思。You might pay more attention to spoken English.
182. as usual 像平常那样
183. In his eyes, whatever I did was wrong. 在他眼里我做什么都是错的。
184. wherever = no matter where whoever = no matter who.
185. expect [ik'spekt] vt. 期待,预期,预料
expect sb. to do sth. expect to do sth.
They expect to finish the work by Friday.
186. else修饰疑问句what,who,which,w hen,where,how等不定代词something,everything
187. As the old saying goes, he who never been to the Great Wall is not a true man.
188. take a trip = have make a trip be on a trip 在旅行 be on a visit to 在参观
189. leave为短暂性动词,不与一段时间连用。
190. marry短暂性 → married延续性
191. dream of doing sth.

64


初中英语 中考复习笔记
192. according to sth. 根据……
193. be willing to do sth. 乐意做某事 be unwilling to do sth. 不乐意做某事
194. fantastic a. 空想的,异想天开的。奇异的,古怪的。
195. consider + n. doing sth. 考虑……
196. a piece of information ask for information on sth.
a man of wide information 见多识广
197. continue sth. to do sth. = go on to sth. 继续做某事
198. We can see through the glass 看过沙漠
199. Can’t help doing sth. = can’t stop doing sth. I cannot help thinking so.
200. put sth to good bad use 善于、不善于利用某物
201. be able to do sth. 能够做某事(可用于任何时态)be unable to do sth.
202. fill A with B 用A充满B be full of = be fill with
203. run out of 时间、精力、钱、物
204. work out 被证明;结果是 work it out 算出来
205. Be careful of the glass broken by the cat.
206. This sign says “NO PHOTOES”
207. be similar to 像……





What's the population of China?



How large is the population of China?





pass sth. to sb.

be made of 看得出原材料的

把某物递给某人
由制作的


pass sb. sth.


be make from 看不出原材料的


Let's(include说话的人和听话的人) 问:shall we ?

问:will you ?

Let us (不include听话的人)
叶子半数自己黄,
妻子拿刀去砍娘。
架后窜出一只狼 ,
就像盗贼逃命亡。

去 f fe + ves
leaf→leaves
self→selves
knive→knives
wolf→wolves
life→lives
half→halves
wife→wives
shelf→s helves
thief→thieves







主语为物It takes sb.
take



时间、金钱

65

花费

spend

主语为人spend  时


cost

主语为物(强调金钱


pay

主语为人


初中英语 中考复习笔记



do sth. 为做某事编一个理由

make a reason to




give the reason for sth.

给出某事做某事的理由

give the reason for doing sth.



如:give me your reasons for being late .













in the front of 在内部的前面


in front of 在外部的前面

across指在表面穿过、有接触面


through指从内部穿过

over指从上空穿过、没有接触面


soon 间隔快


quick 反应快 adj.

fast 移动速度快 adj.&adv.


make sb. do sth.

省略to的不定式

let sb. do sth.

have sb. do sth.

help sb. (to) do sth. 可加可不加
Lucy with her parents

is
Lucy and her parents

are

继续做同一件事

go on doing sth.

结束去做某件事

go on to do sth.

特别喜欢:likea lot very much


有一点喜欢:likea little

一点都不喜欢:(doesn't)don't likeat all


在山顶上on the top of the mountain


在半山腰 half way up the mountain

在山脚下 at the foot of the mountain


need sth. 需要某物

need(实义动词)

need to do sth. 需要做某事

need doing 需要被

如:The flowers need watering . 花需要被浇水。
It takes sb.  时间  to do sth. 做某事花某人多少时间

must be 肯定推测


may be 可能

can't 不能是














on sth.
人  spend  时间金钱 



(in) doing sth.



for sth.

人pay


sb.  金钱


物cost sb.  钱




①不得不(客观)

00.

She has to get home before 5:

have to

②人称及时态变化

untill 12:00 last night.

I had to study


to get home before 5:00.

③否定借助动词do:She don't have
66


初中英语 中考复习笔记




tell 给某人讲笑话


make a joke with sb. 和某人开玩笑

Don't make such kind of jokes with others 别和别人开这种玩笑


be famous as 作为出名

Jaychou is famous as a singer.

famous (adj.)


Shantou is famous for the beautiful beach.
be famous for 因而出名



Jaychou is famous for his song.



spend time with sb. 花时间在某人身上
spend 花费


spend



on sth.

sb.

(in) doing sth.


sometimes 频度副词;有时


sometime 某时,某个不确定的时间

some times 几次


some time 一些时间


ill

表语:The boy is ill.

sick

表语:The boy is


sick.


定语:This is a sick boy.
67

致爱丽丝歌谱-王国维简介


梁静茹歌曲-离骚ppt


品牌鞋子-描写秋天的优美句子


英语角活动-大热


齐白石简介-贾平凹作品


教学评估表-幼儿教案


yourself-无处安放


嫁祸于人-关于科学的名人名言