2002年全国考研英语阅读真题1 Section III Reading
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions
below each text by choosing [A], [B], [C] or [D]. Mark your
answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)
If you intend using humor in your talk to make people
smile, you must know how to identify shared experiences and
problems. Your humor must be relevant to the audience and
should help to show them that you are one of them or that
you understand their situation and are in sympathy with their
point of view. Depending on whom you are addressing, the
problems will be different. If you are talking to a group of
managers, you may refer to the disorganized methods of their
secretaries; alternatively if you are addressing secretaries, you
may want to comment on their disorganized bosses.
Here is an example, which I heard at a nurses convention,
of a story which works well because the audience all shared
the same view of doctors. A man arrives in heaven and is being
shown around by St. Peter. He sees wonderful
accommodations, beautiful gardens, sunny weather, and so on.
Everyone is very peaceful, polite and friendly until, waiting in a
line for lunch, the new arrival is suddenly pushed aside by a
man in a white coat, who rushes to the head of the line, grabs
his food and stomps over to a table by himself. Who is that?
the new arrival asked St. Peter. Oh, that s God, came the reply,
but sometimes he thinks he s a doctor.
If you are part of the group, which you are addressing,
you will be in a position to know the experiences and
problems which are common to all of you and it ll be
appropriate for you to make a passing remark about the
inedible canteen food or the chairman s notorious bad taste in
ties. With other audiences you mustn t attempt to cut in with
humor as they will resent an outsider making disparaging
remarks about their canteen or their chairman. You will be on
safer ground if you stick to scapegoats like the Post Office or
the telephone system.
If you feel awkward being humorous, you must practice
so that it becomes more natural. Include a few casual and
apparently off-the- cuff remarks which you can deliver in a
relaxed and unforced manner. Often it s the delivery which
causes the audience to smile, so speak slowly and remember
that a raised eyebrow or an unbelieving look may help to show
that you are making a light-hearted remark.
Look for the humor. It often comes from the unexpected.
A twist on a familiar quote If at first you don t succeed, give up
or a play on words or on a situation. Search for exaggeration
and understatements. Look at your talk and pick out a few
words or sentences which you can turn about and inject with
41. To make your humor work, you should ________.
[A] take advantage of different kinds of audience
[B] make fun of the disorganized people
[C] address different problems to different people
[D] show sympathy for your listeners
42. The joke about doctors implies that, in the eyes of
nurses, they are ________.
[A] impolite to new arrivals
[B] very conscious of their godlike role
[C] entitled to some privileges
[D] very busy even during lunch hours
43. It can be inferred from the text that public services
[A] have benefited many people
[B] are the focus of public attention
[C] are an inappropriate subject for humor
[D] have often been the laughing stock
44. To achieve the desired result, humorous stories
should be delivered ________.
[A] in well-worded language
[B] as awkwardly as possible
[C] in exaggerated statements
[D] as casually as possible
45. The best title for the text may be ________.
[A] Use Humor Effectively
[B] Various Kinds of Humor
[C] Add Humor to Speech
[D] Different Humor Strategies
2002年全国考研英语阅读真题2 Text 2
Since the dawn of human ingenuity, people have devised
ever more cunning tools to cope with work that is dangerous,
boring, burdensome, or just plain nasty. That compulsion has
resulted in robotics -- the science of conferring various human
capabilities on machines. And if scientists have yet to create
the mechanical version of science fiction, they have begun to
As a result, the modern world is increasingly populated
by intelligent gizmos whose presence we barely notice but
whose universal existence has removed much human labor.
Our factories hum to the rhythm of robot assembly arms. Our
banking is done at automated teller terminals that thank us
with mechanical politeness for the transaction. Our subway
trains are controlled by tireless robot-drivers. And thanks to
the continual miniaturization of electronics and
micro- mechanics, there are already robot systems that can
perform some kinds of brain and bone surgery with
submillimeter accuracy -- far greater precision than highly
skilled physicians can achieve with their hands alone.
But if robots are to reach the next stage of laborsaving
utility, they will have to operate with less human supervision
and be able to make at least a few decisions for themselves --
goals that pose a real challenge. While we know how to tell a
robot to handle a specific error, says Dave Lavery, manager of
a robotics program at NASA, we can t yet give a robot enough
common sense to reliably interact with a dynamic world.
Indeed the quest for true artificial intelligence has
produced very mixed results. Despite a spell of initial optimism
in the 1960s and 1970s when it appeared that transistor
circuits and microprocessors might be able to copy the action
of the human brain by the year 2010, researchers lately have
begun to extend that forecast by decades if not centuries.
What they found, in attempting to model thought, is that
the human brain s roughly one hundred billion nerve cells are
much more talented -- and human perception far more
complicated -- than previously imagined. They have built
robots that can recognize the error of a machine panel by a
fraction of a millimeter in a controlled factory environment.
But the human mind can glimpse a rapidly changing scene
and immediately disregard the 98 percent that is irrelevant,
instantaneously focusing on the monkey at the side of a
winding forest road or the single suspicious face in a big
crowd. The most advanced computer systems on Earth can t
approach that kind of ability, and neuroscientists still don t
know quite how we do it.
46. Human ingenuity was initially demonstrated in
[A] the use of machines to produce science fiction
[B] the wide use of machines in manufacturing industry
[C] the invention of tools for difficult and dangerous
[D] the elite s cunning tackling of dangerous and boring
47. The word gizmos (Line 1, Paragraph 2) most probably
48. According to the text, what is beyond man s ability
now is to design a robot that can ________.
[A] fulfill delicate tasks like performing brain surgery
[B] interact with human beings verbally
[C] have a little common sense
[D] respond independently to a changing world
49. Besides reducing human labor, robots can also
[A] make a few decisions for themselves
[B] deal with some errors with human intervention
[C] improve factory environments
[D] cultivate human creativity
50. The author uses the example of a monkey to argue
that robots are ________.
[A] expected to copy human brain in internal structure
[B] able to perceive abnormalities immediately
[C] far less able than human brain in focusing on relevant
[D] best used in a controlled environment
2002年全国考研英语阅读真题3 Text 3
Could the bad old days of economic decline be about to
return? Since OPEC agreed to supply- cuts in March, the price
of crude oil has jumped to almost $$26 a barrel, up from less
than $$10 last December. This near-tripling of oil prices calls up
scary memories of the 1973 oil shock, when prices quadrupled,
and 1979-80, when they also almost tripled. Both previous
shocks resulted in double-digit inflation and global economic
decline. So where are the headlines warning of gloom and
doom this time?
The oil price was given another push up this week when
Iraq suspended oil exports. Strengthening economic growth,
at the same time as winter grips the northern hemisphere,
could push the price higher still in the short term.
Yet there are good reasons to expect the economic
consequences now to be less severe than in the 1970s. In most
countries the cost of crude oil now accounts for a smaller
share of the price of petrol than it did in the 1970s. In Europe,
taxes account for up to four-fifths of the retail price, so even
quite big changes in the price of crude have a more muted
effect on pump prices than in the past.
Rich economies are also less dependent on oil than they
were, and so less sensitive to swings in the oil price. Energy
conservation, a shift to other fuels and a decline in the
importance of heavy, energy-intensive industries have
reduced oil consumption. Software, consultancy and mobile
telephones use far less oil than steel or car production. For
each dollar of GDP (in constant prices) rich economies now
use nearly 50% less oil than in 1973. The OECD estimates in its
latest Economic Outlook that, if oil prices averaged $$22 a
barrel for a full year, compared with $$13 in 1998, this would
increase the oil import bill in rich economies by only 0.25-0.5%
of GDP. That is less than one-quarter of the income loss in
1974 or 1980. On the other hand, oil-importing emerging
economies -- to which heavy industry has shifted -- have
become more energy-intensive, and so could be more
One more reason not to lose sleep over the rise in oil
prices is that, unlike the rises in the 1970s, it has not occurred
against the background of general commodity-price inflation
and global excess demand. A sizable portion of the world is
only just emerging from economic decline. The Economist s
commodity price index is broadly unchanging from a year ago.
In 1973 commodity prices jumped by 70%, and in 1979 by
51. The main reason for the latest rise of oil price is
[A] global inflation
[B] reduction in supply
[C] fast growth in economy
[D] Iraq s suspension of exports
52. It can be inferred from the text that the retail price of
petrol will go up dramatically if ________.
[A] price of crude rises
[B] commodity prices rise
[C] consumption rises
[D] oil taxes rise
53. The estimates in Economic Outlook show that in rich
[A] heavy industry becomes more energy-intensive
[B] income loss mainly results from fluctuating crude oil
[C] manufacturing industry has been seriously squeezed
[D] oil price changes have no significant impact on GDP
54. We can draw a conclusion from the text that ________.
[A] oil-price shocks are less shocking now
[B] inflation seems irrelevant to oil-price shocks
[C] energy conservation can keep down the oil prices
[D] the price rise of crude leads to the shrinking of heavy
55. From the text we can see that the writer seems
2002年全国考研英语阅读真题4 Text 4
The Supreme Court s decisions on physician- assisted
suicide carry important implications for how medicine seeks
to relieve dying patients of pain and suffering.
Although it ruled that there is no constitutional right to
physician-assisted suicide, the Court in effect supported the
medical principle of double effect, a centuries-old moral
principle holding that an action having two effects -- a good
one that is intended and a harmful one that is foreseen -- is
permissible if the actor intends only the good effect.
Doctors have used that principle in recent years to justify
using high doses of morphine to control terminally ill patients
pain, even though increasing dosages will eventually kill the
Nancy Dubler, director of Montefiore Medical Center,
contends that the principle will shield doctors who until now
have very, very strongly insisted that they could not give
patients sufficient mediation to control their pain if that might
George Annas, chair of the health law department at
Boston University, maintains that, as long as a doctor
prescribes a drug for a legitimate medical purpose, the doctor
has done nothing illegal even if the patient uses the drug to
hasten death. It s like surgery, he says. We don t call those
deaths homicides because the doctors didn t intend to kill
their patients, although they risked their death. If you re a
physician, you can risk your patient s suicide as long as you
don t intend their suicide.
On another level, many in the medical community
acknowledge that the assisted- suicide debate has been fueled
in part by the despair of patients for whom modern medicine
has prolonged the physical agony of dying.
Just three weeks before the Court s ruling on
physician-assisted suicide, the National Academy of Science
(NAS) released a two-volume report, Approaching Death:
Improving Care at the End of Life. It identifies the
undertreatment of pain and the aggressive use of ineffectual
and forced medical procedures that may prolong and even
dishonor the period of dying as the twin problems of
The profession is taking steps to require young doctors
to train in hospices, to test knowledge of aggressive pain
management therapies, to develop a Medicare billing code for
hospital-based care, and to develop new standards for
assessing and treating pain at the end of life.
Annas says lawyers can play a key role in insisting that
these well-meaning medical initiatives translate into better
care. Large numbers of physicians seem unconcerned with the
pain their patients are needlessly and predictably suffering, to
the extent that it constitutes systematic patient abuse. He says
medical licensing boards must make it clear that painful
deaths are presumptively ones that are incompetently
managed and should result in license suspension.
56. From the first three paragraphs, we learn that ________.
[A] doctors used to increase drug dosages to control
their patients pain
[B] it is still illegal for doctors to help the dying end their
[C] the Supreme Court strongly opposes
[D] patients have no constitutional right to commit
57. Which of the following statements is true according
to the text?
[A] Doctors will be held guilty if they risk their patients
[B] Modern medicine has assisted terminally ill patients in
[C] The Court ruled that high-dosage pain-relieving
medication can be prescribed.
[D] A doctor s medication is no longer justified by his
58. According to the NAS s report, one of the problems in
end-of-life care is ________.
[A] prolonged medical procedures
[B] inadequate treatment of pain
[C] systematic drug abuse
[D] insufficient hospital care
59. Which of the following best defines the word
aggressive (Line 3, Paragraph 7)?
60. George Annas would probably agree that doctors
should be punished if they ________.
[A] manage their patients incompetently
[B] give patients more medicine than needed
[C] reduce drug dosages for their patients
[D] prolong the needless suffering of the patients
2002年全国考研英语阅读真题答案解析 Section III: Reading
Comprehension (50 points)
Part A (40 points)